Probucol combined with valsartan in immunoglobulin A nephropathy: A multi-centre, open labelled, randomized controlled study
- Conflict of interest statement: None of the authors has any potential financial conflict of interest related to this manuscript.
Angiotensin receptor antagonists (ARBs) and anti-oxidants reduce urinary protein excretion and delay progression of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. We investigated the efficacy and safety of probucol (an anti-oxidant) combined with valsartan (an ARB) on the progression of IgA nephropathy.
Patients with IgA nephropathy (n = 69) were recruited from five centres and randomly assigned to a treatment group (750 mg/day probucol plus 160 mg/day valsartan) or a control group (160 mg/day valsartan) and were followed for 3 years.
At baseline, the two groups in any measured clinical information were comparable. The primary endpoint (doubling serum creatinine) showed no significant difference between the two groups during 3-year follow-up. The secondary endpoint (50% reduction in 24-h urinary protein) occurred in 23 patients in the treatment group and 20 patients in the control group. The time to the secondary end-point was shorter in the treatment group than the control group (8.13 months vs 19.63 months, P = 0.019). However, at the 3-year follow-up, the 24-h urinary protein levels were not significantly different from the baseline levels (P = 0.99 and P = 0.66, respectively). At the 1-year follow-up, plasma cholesterol in the treatment group was markedly lower than in the control group (4.12 ± 1.28 vs 5.03 ± 1.01, P = 0.02).
Kidney function remained stable and there was no significant difference in two group patients. Probucol combined with valsartan led to a more rapid decrease of 24-h urinary protein excretion than valsartan alone. However, the long-term effect needs further investigation.