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Bilateral Pallidal Stimulation for “Sticking-Out Tongue” Feature in Patients With Primary Focal Tongue Protrusion Dystonia

Authors

  • Jong Chul Chung MD,

    1. Department of Neurosurgery, Severance Hospital, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
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  • Joo Pyung Kim MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Neurosurgery, CHA University, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam, Republic of Korea
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  • Won Seok Chang MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Neurosurgery, Severance Hospital, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
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  • Hae Yu Kim MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Neurosurgery, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan, Korea
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  • Jin Woo Chang MD, PhD

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Neurosurgery, Severance Hospital, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    • Address correspondence to: Jin Woo Chang, MD, PhD, Department of Neurosurgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752, Korea. Email: jchang@yuhs.ac

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  • Conflict of Interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
  • For more information on author guidelines, an explanation of our peer review process, and conflict of interest informed consent policies, please go to http://www.wiley.com/bw/submit.asp?ref=1094-7159&site=1

Abstract

Introduction

Tongue protrusion dystonia can cause difficulty with speech, mastication, breathing, and swallowing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is a widespread therapeutic alternative for treating medically refractory dystonia. To our knowledge, detailed reports regarding DBS for tongue protrusion dystonia are rare. In this report, we describe two patients with “sticking out” tongue protrusion who had undergone bilateral GPi DBS.

Methods

Operations were performed with surface electromyographic (EMG) monitoring, microelectrode recording, and macrostimulation to identify the point at which tongue kinetic cells respond most effectively. The most effective location for active contacts was identified according to burst EMG response in the posteroventral GPi.

Results

Two years after DBS, total Burke, Fahn, and Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale scores of two patients were improved from 12.5 to 1 (92.0%) and from 13 to 1 (92.3%), respectively. One 58-year-old woman who lost 7 kg weight from not eating well improved enough to eat solid food and became free from choking. Another 54-year-old woman who had dysarthria and mumbled could speak more fluently and would not have complained difficulty in reading any more.

Conclusion

Stimulation on posteroventral GPi for patients with idiopathic “sticking-out” tongue movement changes EMG pattern in orofacial muscles. This fact supports a reason for modulation of unknown circuit connecting tongue-specific area in motor cortex, and basal ganglia.

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