• Aoyama M, Ishikawa Y, Tamura Y et al. A study of students' confidence regarding their knowledge and psychomotor skills on fundamental nursing skills using Confidence-Weighted Testing (CWT). The 1st International Nursing Research Conference of World Academy of Nursing Science Program & Abstracts. Kobe: World Academy of Nursing Science, 2009; 231.
  • Aoyama M, Ito A, Miyake M, Sudo S, Lim Y. Assessment of nursing skills acquisition of cognitive and psychomotor domains with confidence- weighted test. J. Jpn. Acad. Nurs. Educ. 2007; 17: 110. (in Japanese with English abstract).
  • Bandura A. Exercise of personal and collective in changing societies. In: Bandura A (ed.). Self-efficacy in Changing Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997; 145.
  • Casey K, Fink R, Krugman M, Propst J. The graduate nurse experience. J. Nurs. Adm. 2004; 34: 303311.
  • Clynes MP, Raftery SEC. Feedback: an essential element of student learning in clinical practice. Nurse. Educ. Pract. 2008; 8: 405411.
  • Dreifuerst KT. The essentials of debriefing in simulation learning: a concept analysis. Nurs. Educ. Perspect. 2009; 30: 109114.
  • Drexler L. Strategies to improve final year nursing students' confidence. JUNS. An Online Publication for Baccalaureate Nursing Students. 2009; 11. [Cited 10 Nov 2011.] Available from URL:
  • Fagin C, Summers S, Summers H. The nursing shortage. In: Aiken L , Benner P , Watson J et al. (eds). Crisis in Nursing: Strategies for a Better Tomorrow. Tokyo: Life Support, 2009; 5786. (in Japanese).
  • Hattie J, Timperley H. The power of feedback. Rev. Educ. Res. 2007; 77: 81112.
  • Hisada A, Taneda Y, Imura K. The student nurses self-study for basic nursing technology acquisition–pretest and checklist. Mie Nurs. J. 2011; 13: 6371. (in Japanese with English abstract).
  • Japanese Nursing Association Nurse Central Nurse Center. Prevention of newly graduated nursing personnel from resigning at an early stage on nursing education. In: Ichikawa I , Kameoka T , Chiba H et al. (eds). Prevention of Newly Qualified Nurse Turnover within One Year after Entering the Nursing Field. Tokyo: Japanese Nursing Association Nurse Central Nurse Center, 2006; 730. [Cited 4 Nov 2006.] Available from URL: (in Japanese).
  • Kage M. Self-evaluation. In: Sakamoto T , Mizukoshi T , Nisinosono H (eds). Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. Tokyo: Jikkyo Shuppan, 2000; 249250. (in Japanese).
  • Liachopoulou AP, Synodinou-Kamilou EE, Deligiannidi PG, Giannakopoulou M, Birbas KN. Nurses' training and confidence on deep venous catheterization. Technol. Health Care 2008; 16: 159169.
  • Mayeroff M. On Caring. New York: Harper Collins, 1971.
  • Ikenishi E, Tamura Y. Reflection. In: Gregg MF , Ikenishi E (eds). Nursing Education. Tokyo: Nankodo, 2009; 117128. (in Japanese).
  • Mish FC , Copeland RD , Despres JM , Lowe JG , Pease RW Jr , Rader JL (eds). Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield: Merriam-Webster Incorporated, 2003.
  • Morita H. Feedback. In: Sakamoto T , Mizukoshi T , Nisinosono H (eds). Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. Tokyo: Jikkyo Shuppan, 2000; 448450. (in Japanese).
  • Morita T, Hatao M. Signification on educational evaluation with confidence-weighted testing (CWT): feedback of confidence value. Med. Educ. Jpn. 2004; 35: 28. (in Japanese).
  • Morita T, Inaba M, Ino H, Hirayama R, Hata M, Oono R. A study of process of confidence value and answers on confidence-weighted testing. Med. Educ. Jpn. 1999; 30: 345. (in Japanese).
  • Oermann MH. Psychomotor skill development. J. Contin. Educ. Nurs. 1990; 21: 202204.
  • Okamura N, Fujii T, Hori R. Examination of the education to learn fundamentals of nursing art at nursing universities/colleges. J. Jpn. Acad. Nurs. Educ. 2009; 19: 1327. (in Japanese with English abstract).
  • Perry P. Concept analysis: confidence/self-confidence. Nurs. Forum 2011; 46: 218230.
  • Roberts D, Johnson M. Newly qualified nurses: competence or confidence? Nurse Educ. Today 2009; 29: 467468.
  • Tajima K. Improving Competence in Nursing Practice (2th edn). Tokyo: Igakushoin, 2004; 38. (in Japanese).
  • Turale S. An international perspective regarding nursing education. In: Turale S , Katsui N , Watanabe T (eds). Cross-Cultural Understanding and Health Care. Tokyo: Nihon Housyasen Gishikai Syuppan, 2008; 3545. (in Japanese).
  • White KA. Self-confidence: a concept analysis. Nurs. Forum 2009; 44: 103113.
  • Zimmerman B. Self-efficacy and educational development. In: Bandura A (ed.). Self-Efficacy Changing Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997; 202231.