• 1
    Vandenplas Y, Rudolph CD, Di LC et al. Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux clinical practice guidelines: joint recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). J Ped Gastroenterol Nut2009; 49(4): 498547.
  • 2
    Kahrilas PJ, Shaheen NJ, Vaezi MF et al. American Gastroenterological Association Medical Position Statement on the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology2008; 135(4): 138391.
  • 3
    Dent J, Dodds WJ, Friedman RH et al. Mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux in recumbent asymptomatic human subjects. J Clin Invest1980; 65(2): 25667.
  • 4
    Dent J, Holloway RH, Toouli J, Dodds WJ. Mechanisms of lower oesophageal sphincter incompetence in patients with symptomatic gastrooesophageal reflux. Gut1988; 29(8): 10208.
  • 5
    Dodds WJ, Dent J, Hogan WJ et al. Mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with reflux esophagitis. N Engl J Med1982; 307(25): 154752.
  • 6
    Mittal RK, Holloway RH, Penagini R, Blackshaw LA, Dent J. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Gastroenterology Gastroenterology1995; 109(2): 60110.
  • 7
    Wyman JB, Dent J, Heddle R, Dodds WJ, Toouli J, Downton J. Control of belching by the lower oesophageal sphincter. Gut1990; 31(6): 63946.
  • 8
    Bredenoord AJ, Weusten BL, Timmer R, Smout AJ. Characteristics of gastroesophageal reflux in symptomatic patients with and without excessive esophageal acid exposure. Am J Gastroenterol2006; 101(11): 24705.
    Direct Link:
  • 9
    Sifrim D, Holloway R, Silny J et al. Acid, nonacid, and gas reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease during ambulatory 24-hour pH-impedance recordings. Gastroenterology Gastroenterology2001; 120(7): 158898.
  • 10
    Sifrim D, Holloway R. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations: how many or how harmful?Am J Gastroenterol2001; 96(9): 252932.
    Direct Link:
  • 11
    Trudgill NJ, Riley SA. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations are no more frequent in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease than in asymptomatic volunteers. Am J Gastroenterol2001; 96(9): 256974.
    Direct Link:
  • 12
    Boeckxstaens GE. Review article: the pathophysiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther2007; 26(2): 14960.
  • 13
    Holloway RH, Hongo M, Berger K, McCallum RW. Gastric distention: a mechanism for postprandial gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroenterology Gastroenterology1985; 89(4): 77984.
  • 14
    Ang D. Measurement of gastric accommodation: a reappraisal of conventional and emerging modalities. Neurogastroenterol Motil2011; 23(4): 28791.
  • 15
    van den Elzen BD, Boeckxstaens GE. Review article: a critical view on impaired accommodation as therapeutic target for functional dyspepsia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther2006; 23(11): 1499510.
  • 16
    Boeckxstaens GE, Hirsch DP, Fakhry N, Holloway RH, Amato M, Tytgat GNJ. Involvement of cholecystokinin A receptors in transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations triggered by gastric distension. Am J Gastroenterol1998; 93(10): 18238.
  • 17
    Zerbib F, Bruley D V, Scarpignato C et al. Endogenous cholecystokinin in postprandial lower esophageal sphincter function and fundic tone in humans. Am J Physiol1998; 275(6 Pt 1): G126673.
  • 18
    Kapur KC, Trudgill NJ, Riley SA. Mechanisms of gastro-oesophageal reflux in the lateral decubitus positions. Neurogastroenterol Motil1998; 10(6): 51722.
  • 19
    Katz LC, Just R, Castell DO. Body position affects recumbent postprandial reflux. J Clin Gastroenterol1994; 18(4): 2803.
  • 20
    Shay SS, Lopez R. Impedance monitoring shows that posture and a meal influence gastro-oesophageal reflux composition and frequency. Neurogastroenterol Motil2007; 19(2): 94102.
  • 21
    van Herwaarden MA, Katzka DA, Smout AJ, Samsom M, Gideon M, Castell DO. Effect of different recumbent positions on postprandial gastroesophageal reflux in normal subjects. Am J Gastroenterol2000; 95(10): 27316.
  • 22
    Omari TI, Rommel N, Staunton E et al. Paradoxical impact of body positioning on gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying in the premature neonate. J Pediatr2004; 145(2): 194200.
  • 23
    van Wijk MP, Benninga MA, Dent J et al. Effect of body position changes on postprandial gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying in the healthy premature neonate. J Pediatr J Pediatr2007; 151(6): 58590.
  • 24
    van Wijk MP, Benninga MA, Davidson GP, Haslam R, Omari TI. Small volumes of feed can trigger transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and gastroesophageal reflux in the right lateral position in infants. J Pediatr2010; 156(5): 7448.
  • 25
    Richter JE, Bradley LA, DeMeester TR, Wu WC. Normal 24-hr ambulatory esophageal pH values. Influence of study center, pH electrode, age, and gender. Dig Dis Sci1992; 37(6): 84956.
  • 26
    Shaw MJ, Talley NJ, Beebe TJ et al. Initial validation of a diagnostic questionnaire for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol2001; 96(1): 527.
    Direct Link:
  • 27
    Holloway RH, Penagini R, Ireland AC. Criteria for objective definition of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Am J Physiol1995; 268(1 Pt 1): G12833.
  • 28
    Sifrim D, Castell D, Dent J, Kahrilas PJ. Gastro-oesophageal reflux monitoring: review and consensus report on detection and definitions of acid, non-acid, and gas reflux. Gut2004; 53(7): 102431.
  • 29
    Ghoos YF, Maes BD, Geypens BJ et al. Measurement of gastric emptying rate of solids by means of a carbon-labeled octanoic acid breath test. Gastroenterology Gastroenterology1993; 104(6): 16407.
  • 30
    Bennink RJ, van den Elzen BD, Kuiken SD, Boeckxstaens GE. Noninvasive measurement of gastric accommodation by means of pertechnetate SPECT: limiting radiation dose without losing image quality. J Nucl Med2004; 45(1): 14752.
  • 31
    Kuiken S, Van Den Elzen B, Tytgat G, Bennink R, Boeckxstaens G. Evidence for pooling of gastric secretions in the proximal stomach in humans using single photon computed tomography. Gastroenterology Gastroenterology2002; 123(6): 21578.
  • 32
    Beaumont H, Bennink RJ, de JJ, Boeckxstaens GE. The position of the acid pocket as a major risk factor for acidic reflux in healthy subjects and patients with GORD. Gut2010; 59(4): 44151.
  • 33
    van den Elzen BD, Bennink RJ, Holman R, Tytgat GN, Boeckxstaens GE. Impaired drinking capacity in patients with functional dyspepsia: intragastric distribution and distal stomach volume. Neurogastroenterol Motil2007; 19(12): 96876.
  • 34
    Marciani L. Assessment of gastrointestinal motor functions by MRI: a comprehensive review. Neurogastroenterol Motil2011; 23(5): 399407.
  • 35
    Schwizer W, Steingoetter A, Fox M. Magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of gastrointestinal function. Scand J Gastroenterol2006; 41(11): 124560.
  • 36
    Indireshkumar K, Brasseur JG, Faas H et al. Relative contributions of “pressure pump” and “peristaltic pump” to gastric emptying. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol2000; 278(4): G60416.
  • 37
    Pilichiewicz AN, Little TJ, Brennan IM et al. Effects of load, and duration, of duodenal lipid on antropyloroduodenal motility, plasma CCK and PYY, and energy intake in healthy men. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol2006; 290(3): R66877.
  • 38
    Penagini R, Bravi I. The role of delayed gastric emptying and impaired oesophageal body motility. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol2010; 24(6): 83145.
  • 39
    Penagini R, Hebbard G, Horowitz M et al. Motor function of the proximal stomach and visceral perception in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Gut1998; 42(2): 2517.
  • 40
    Zerbib F, des Varannes SB, Ropert A, Lamouliatte H, Quinton A, Galmiche JP. Proximal gastric tone in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol1999; 11(5): 5115.
  • 41
    Pandolfino JE, Shi G, Trueworthy B, Kahrilas PJ. Esophagogastric junction opening during relaxation distinguishes nonhernia reflux patients, hernia patients, and normal subjects. Gastroenterology Gastroenterology2003; 125(4): 101824.
  • 42
    Sifrim D, Holloway R, Silny J, Tack J, Lerut A, Janssens J. Composition of the postprandial refluxate in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol2001; 96(3): 64755.
    Direct Link:
  • 43
    Mittal RK, McCallum RW. Characteristics and frequency of transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter in patients with reflux esophagitis. Gastroenterology1988; 95(3): 5939.
  • 44
    Holloway RH, Kocyan P, Dent J. Provocation of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations by meals in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux. Dig Dis Sci1991; 36(8): 10349.
  • 45
    Penagini R, Mangano M, Bianchi PA. Effect of increasing the fat content but not the energy load of a meal on gastro-oesophageal reflux and lower oesophageal sphincter motor function. Gut1998; 42(3): 3303.
  • 46
    Boeckxstaens GE. Alterations confined to the gastro-oesophageal junction: the relationship between low LOSP, TLOSRs, hiatus hernia and acid pocket. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol2010; 24(6): 8219.
  • 47
    Fletcher J, Wirz A, Young J, Vallance R, McColl KEL. Unbuffered highly acidic gastric juice exists at the gastroesophageal junction after a meal. Gastroenterology Gastroenterology2001; 121(4): 77583.
  • 48
    Fletcher J, Wirz A, Young J, McColl KEL. Unbuffered highly acidic gastric juice extends from the cardia across the squamo-columnar junction and into the distal oesophagus after meals. Gut2002; 50: 017.
  • 49
    Pandolfino JE, Zhang Q, Ghosh SK, Post J, Kwiatek M, Kahrilas PJ. Acidity surrounding the squamocolumnar junction in GERD patients: “acid pocket” versus “acid film”. Am J Gastroenterol2007; 21: 21.