Observational studies suggest that bariatric surgery is the most effective intervention for achieving a significant and durable weight loss. In patients with type 2 diabetes, such surgery is often associated with remission of their diabetes. The mechanism(s) by which surgeries such as Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) leads to favorable effects on glucose metabolism remain unknown. RYGB is associated with altered secretion of enteroendocrine hormones, leading to the belief that these hormones contribute to the improvement in insulin secretion and action as well as satiation after this procedure. However, it is important to consider the not insignificant effects of caloric restriction and the mechanical changes to the upper gut in determining the outcomes of such surgery.