• Arabidopsis;
  • brassinosteroids;
  • cell division;
  • cpd ;
  • leaf


  • Brassinosteroid (BR) hormones control plant growth through acting on both cell expansion and division. Here, we examined the role of BRs in leaf growth using the Arabidopsis BR-deficient mutant constitutive photomorphogenesis and dwarfism (cpd).
  • We show that the reduced size of cpd leaf blades is a result of a decrease in cell size and number, as well as in venation length and complexity. Kinematic growth analysis and tissue-specific marker gene expression revealed that the leaf phenotype of cpd is associated with a prolonged cell division phase and delayed differentiation.
  • cpd-leaf-rescue experiments and leaf growth analysis of BR biosynthesis and signaling gain-of-function mutants showed that BR production and BR receptor-dependent signaling differentially control the balance between cell division and expansion in the leaf.
  • Investigation of cell cycle markers in leaves of cpd revealed the accumulation of mitotic proteins independent of transcription. This correlated with an increase in cyclin-dependent kinase activity, suggesting a role for BRs in control of mitosis.