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A proteomic approach identifies many novel palmitoylated proteins in Arabidopsis

Authors


Author for correspondence:

Piers A. Hemsley

Tel: +44 191 3341271

Email: p.a.hemsley@durham.ac.uk

Summary

  • S-acylation (palmitoylation) is a poorly understood post-translational modification of proteins involving the addition of acyl lipids to cysteine residues. S-acylation promotes the association of proteins with membranes and influences protein stability, microdomain partitioning, membrane targeting and activation state. No consensus motif for S-acylation exists and it therefore requires empirical identification.
  • Here, we describe a biotin switch isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based method to identify S-acylated proteins from Arabidopsis. We use these data to predict and confirm S-acylation of proteins not in our dataset.
  • We identified c. 600 putative S-acylated proteins affecting diverse cellular processes. These included proteins involved in pathogen perception and response, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) and RLK superfamily members, integral membrane transporters, ATPases, soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-activating protein receptors (SNAREs) and heterotrimeric G-proteins. The prediction of S-acylation of related proteins was demonstrated by the identification and confirmation of S-acylation sites within the SNARE and LRR-RLK families. We showed that S-acylation of the LRR-RLK FLS2 is required for a full response to elicitation by the flagellin derived peptide flg22, but is not required for localization to the plasma membrane.
  • Arabidopsis contains many more S-acylated proteins than previously thought. These data can be used to identify S-acylation sites in related proteins. We also demonstrated that S-acylation is required for full LRR-RLK function.

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