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Fig. S1 Photographs of the experimental setting at El Castillejo Botanical Garden, Spain, including the general view of the four blocks, dimensions of each block, vegetative rosettes and fruiting plants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Fig. S2 Daily minimum and maximum temperatures and total precipitation at El Castillejo Botanical Garden, Spain, during the field experiment.

Fig. S3 Population mean flowering times of Arabidopsis thaliana estimated in the field and glasshouse with and without vernalization illustrating the significant population × environment interaction found in this study.

Fig. S4 Genetic structure of nonredundant multilocus Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes based on 198 polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and estimated with the structure program.