Drought predisposes piñon–juniper woodlands to insect attacks and mortality
Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2013
© 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust
Volume 198, Issue 2, pages 567–578, April 2013
How to Cite
Gaylord, M. L., Kolb, T. E., Pockman, W. T., Plaut, J. A., Yepez, E. A., Macalady, A. K., Pangle, R. E. and McDowell, N. G. (2013), Drought predisposes piñon–juniper woodlands to insect attacks and mortality. New Phytologist, 198: 567–578. doi: 10.1111/nph.12174
- Issue online: 20 MAR 2013
- Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 7 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 2 NOV 2012
- National Institute of Climatic Change Research
- Department of Energy (DOE) Terrestrial Carbon Program
- Drought Impacts on Regional Ecosystems Network (DIREnet via NSF)
- 2009. Temperature sensitivity of drought-induced tree mortality portends increased regional die-off under global change-type drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106: 7063–7066. , , , , , , , .
- 1998. Drought-induced shift of a forest woodland ecotone: rapid landscape response to climate variation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 95: 14839–14842. , .
- 2007. Climate-induced forest dieback as an emergent global phenomenon. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 88: 504–505. , .
- 2010. A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 660–684. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2000. Assessing the consequences of global change for forest disturbance from herbivores and pathogens. The Science of the Total Environment 262: 263–286. , .
- 2010. Climate change and bark beetles of the western United States and Canada: direct and indirect effects. BioScience 60: 602–613. , , , , , , , , .
- 1972. Resistance of conifers to invasion by bark beetle-fungi associations. BioScience 22: 598–602. .
- 1992. Seasonal cambial growth and development of loblolly pine: xylem formation, inner bark chemistry, resin ducts, and resin flow. Forest Ecology and Management 49: 151–165. , , , , .
- 2001. Climate history of the Tibetan Plateau during the last 1000 years derived from a network of juniper chronologies. Dendrochronologia 19: 127–137. .
- 2005. Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change type drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 102: 15144–15148. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2009. Tree die-off in response to global change-type drought: mortality insights from a decade of plant water potential measurements. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7: 185–189. , , , , , , , .
- 2001. Complex species interactions and the dynamics of ecological systems: long-term experiments. Science 293: 643–650. , , , .
- 1988. Correlation between carbon isotope discrimination in leaf starch and sugars of C3 plants and the ratio of intercellular and atmospheric partial pressures of carbon dioxide. Plant Physiology 88: 1418–1424. , , , , .
- 1964. Overwintering habits of Ips lecontei Sw. and Ips confusus (Lec.) in Arizona and New Mexico. Fort Collins, CO, USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. .
- 1987. Resistance of conifers to bark beetle attack: searching for general relationships. Forest Ecology and Management 22: 89–106. , , .
- 1992. Effects of bark girdling on carbohydrate supply and resistance of loblolly pine to southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) attack. Forest Ecology and Management 56: 317–330. , .
- 1993. Modified water regimes affect photosynthesis, xylem water potential, cambial growth, and resistance of juvenile Pinus taeda L. to Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology 22: 948–957. , .
- 1991 13C/12C fractionation and its utility in terrestrial plant studies. In: Coleman D, Fry B, eds. Carbon-isotope techniques. New York, NY, USA: Academic Press, 187–200. .
- 2000. Long-term tree-ring variations in Juniperus at the upper timber-line in Karakorum (Pakistan). Holocene 10: 253–260. .
- 2009. Relationship of stand characteristics to drought-induced mortality in three southwestern piñon-juniper woodlands. Ecological Applications 19: 1223–1230. , , , , , , .
- 2005. Anatomical and chemical defenses of conifer bark against bark beetles and other pests. Tansley Review. New Phytologist 167: 353–376. , , , .
- 1977. Western forest insects. Washington, DC, USA: USDA, Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication no. 1339. , .
- 2011. Limited response of ponderosa pine bole defenses to wounding and fungi. Tree Physiology 31: 428–437. , , , .
- 2007. Seasonal dynamics of tree growth, physiology, and resin defenses in a northern Arizona ponderosa pine forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37: 1173–1183. , , , .
- 2001. Evaluating cross-dating accuracy: a manual and tutorial for the computer program COFECHA. Tree Ring Research 57: 205–221. .
- 2007. Do trees use reserve or newly assimilated carbon for their defense reactions? A 13C labeling approach with young Scots pines inoculated with a bark-beetle-associated fungus (Ophiostoma brunneo ciliatum). Annals of Forest Science 64: 601–608. , , , , .
- 1992. The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend. The Quarterly Review of Biology 67: 283–335. , .
- 1983. Computer-assisted quality control in tree-ring dating and measurement. Tree-Ring Bulletin 43: 69–78. .
- 2004. Plant water stress and its consequences for herbivorous insects: a new synthesis. Ecology 85: 1383–1398. , .
- 1989. Life history of Styloxus bicolor (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on Juniperus monosperma in northern Arizona. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 82: 582–587. , .
- 2012. Drought effects on damage by forest insects and pathogens: a meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 18: 267–276. , , , , , , .
- 2010. Importance of resin ducts in reducing ponderosa pine mortality from bark beetle attacks. Oecologia 164: 601–609. , .
- 1982. Ethylene, ethane, acetaldehyde, and ethanol production by plants under stress. Plant Physiology 69: 840–847. , .
- 2011. Are defensive structures good predictors of tree mortality under drought and insect pressure? Master Thesis. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Bern, Switzerland. .
- 2012. Large-scale pinyon ips (Ips confusus) outbreak in southwestern United States tied with elevation and land cover. Journal of Forestry 110: 194–200. , , , .
- 2010. Variation in woody plant mortality and dieback from severe drought among soils, plant groups, and species within a northern Arizona ecotone. Oecologia 163: 1079–1090. , , .
- 1989. Stressful times for the plant stress – insect performance hypothesis. Oikos 56: 277–283. .
- 1991. Defense mechanisms of conifers: differences in constitutive and wound-induced monoterpene biosynthesis among species. Plant Physiology 96: 44–49. , , .
- 2002. Mechanisms of resistance in conifers and bark beetle attack strategies. In: Wagner , MR , Clancy KM, Lieutier F, Paine TD, eds. Mechanisms and deployment of resistance in trees to insects. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 31–77. .
- 1983. A multiple funnel trap for Scolytid beetles (Coleoptera). The Canadian Entomologist 115: 299–302. .
- 1998. Limits to water transport in Juniperus osteosperma and Pinus edulis: implications for drought tolerance and regulation of transpiration. Functional Ecology 12: 906–911. , , .
- 2007. Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems. Global Change Biology 13: 2089–2109. , , .
- 1932. Growth-differentiation balance vs. carbohydrate-nitrogen ratio. Proceedings of the American Society of Horticultural Science 29: 240–245. .
- 1986. Growth-differentiation balance: a basis for understanding southern pine beetle-tree interactions. Forest Ecology and Management 14: 259–273. .
- 1993. Environmental stress and whole-tree physiology. In: Schowalter TD, Filip GM, eds. Beetle-pathogen interactions in conifer forests. London, UK: Academic Press, 81–101. .
- 1987. The role of drought in outbreaks of plant-eating insects. BioScience 37: 110–118. , .
- 2008. Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought? Tansley Review. New Phytologist 178: 719–739. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2010. The mechanisms of carbon starvation: how, when, or does it even occur at all? New Phytologist 186: 264–266. , .
- 2011. The interdependence of mechanisms underlying climate-driven vegetation mortality. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 523–532. , , , , , .
- 1991. Genetic variation and heterozygosity in pinyon pine associated with resistance to herbivory and environmental stress. Evolution 45: 989–999. , , , , .
- 2005a. Differential tree mortality in response to severe drought: evidence for long-term vegetation shifts. Journal of Ecology 93: 1085–1093. , , , , , .
- 2005b. Chronic herbivory negatively impacts cone and seed production, seed quality and seedling growth of susceptible pinyon pines. Oecologia 143: 558–565. , , , .
- 2012. Methodology and performance of a rainfall manipulation experiment in a piñon–juniper woodland. Ecosphere 3:28. , , , , , , , .
- 2012. Hydraulic limits preceding mortality in a piñon-juniper woodland under experimental drought. Plant, Cell & Environment 35: 1601–1617. , , , , , , , .
- 2008. Cross-scale drivers of natural disturbances prone to anthropogenic amplification: the dynamics of bark beetle eruptions. BioScience 58: 501–517. , , , , , , .
- 1982. Physiological differences between lodgepole pines resistant and susceptible to the mountain pine beetle and associated microorganisms. Environmental Entomology 11: 486–492. , .
- 1997-2011. ImageJ. Bethesda, MD, USA: US National Institutes of Health. http://imagej.nih.gov/ij/. .
- Regent Instruments Inc. 2009. WinDendro. Quebec: Regent Instruments.
- 1995. Insect and disease associates of the piñon-juniper woodlands. In: Shaw DW, Aldon EF, LoSapio C, eds. Desired future conditions for piñon-juniper ecosystems. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-258. Ft Collins, CO, USA: USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 107–108. .
- 2011. Tree responses to drought. Tree Physiology 31: 237–239. .
- 2010. Physiological mechanisms of drought-induced tree mortality are far from being resolved. New Phytologist 186: 274–281. , , .
- SAS Institute Inc. 2010. Statistical analysis systems languages and procedures, version 9. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc.
- 2008. Juniper from Ethiopia contains a large-scale precipitation signal. International Journal of Plant Science 169: 1057–1065. , , , .
- 2007. Model projections of an imminent transition to a more arid climate in southwestern North America. Science 316: 1181–1184. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- Sevilleta Long-Term Ecological Monitoring. 2011.On-line weather station summary Cerro Montoso meteorological station #42. [WWW document] URL http://sev.lternet.edu/ [Accessed 10 November 2011].
- 2006. Pine monoterpenes and pine bark beetles: a marriage of convenience for defense and chemical communication. Phytochemical Review 5: 143–178. , , , , .
- 2005. Forest inventory and analysis (FIA) annual inventory answers the question: what is happening to pinyon-juniper woodlands? Journal of Forestry 103: 280–285. , , .
- 2003. Out of the quagmire of plant defense hypotheses. Quarterly Review of Biology 78: 23–55. .
- 2002. Oleoresin characteristics of progeny of loblolly pines that escaped attack by the southern pine beetle. Forest Ecology and Management 158: 169–178. , , , , .
- 1987. Ethylene production by loblolly pine seedlings associated with water stress. Physiologia Plantarum 69: 167–172. , .
- 1999. Ethanolic fermentation: new functions for an old pathway. Trends in Plant Science 4: 320–325. , , .
- 2007. Impact of minimum winter temperatures on the population dynamics of Dendroctonus frontalis. Ecological Applications 17: 882–899. , , , , .
- 1984. Ultrasonic acoustic emissions from the sapwood of cedar and hemlock: an examination of three hypotheses regarding cavitations. Plant Physiology 75: 988–992. , , , .
- USDA 2002–2010. Aerial Survey information (online). [WWW document] URL http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5238439.pdf. [Accessed 10 November 2011]
- 2003. Effects of crown scorch on ponderosa pine resistance to bark beetles in northern Arizona. Environmental Entomology 32: 652–661. , , , .
- 2007. Seasonal variations in moisture use in a piñon-juniper woodland. Oecologia 153: 787–798. , , .
- 1985. Chronic herbivory: impacts on architecture and sex expression of pinyon pine. Science 228: 1089–1091. , .
- 2012. Temperature as a potent driver of regional forest drought stress and tree mortality. Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE1693. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 1982b. The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) a taxonomic monograph. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs No. 6. Provo, UT, USA: Brigham Young University. .
- 1982a. The role of pheromones, kairomones, and allomones in the host selection and colonization behavior of bark beetles. Annual Review of Entomology 27: 411–446. .