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Table S1 Synthesis of studies of vein features, testing their plasticity (differences across canopies, or for plants of given species grown in different conditions) or adaptation (differences found across species, native to different habitats, likely mainly genetically driven)

Table S2 Synthesis of vein features in land plant lineages, emphasizing variation in hierarchy, reticulation, and vein length per area, and presence or absence of free ending veins and bundle sheath extensions, with key examples and notes

Table S3 Vein traits compiled from previous studies for globally-distributed species, including information of lineage, growth form, sun/shade distribution, leaf area, mean annual temperature and precipitation for plants in native communities, and shade tolerance index data

Notes S1 Establishing the function of a vein trait.

Notes S2 The functional consequences of variation in dimensions of vascular cells within veins.

Notes S3 The functional consequences of the leaf vein hierarchy.

Notes S4 The functional consequences of vein length per area (VLA).

Notes S5 The functional consequences of major vein length per area (major VLA).

Notes S6 The functional consequences of bundle sheath extensions (BSEs).

Notes S7 Genetic pathways and signals for vein patterning during leaf development.

Notes S8 The independence of minor vein length per area from leaf size across species.

Notes S9 Scaling up the coordinated function of the leaf vein system.

Notes S10 Applications of leaf venation architecture.