Major QTLs for critical photoperiod and vernalization underlie extensive variation in flowering in the Mimulus guttatus species complex
Article first published online: 22 APR 2013
© 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust
Volume 199, Issue 2, pages 571–583, July 2013
How to Cite
Friedman, J. and Willis, J. H. (2013), Major QTLs for critical photoperiod and vernalization underlie extensive variation in flowering in the Mimulus guttatus species complex. New Phytologist, 199: 571–583. doi: 10.1111/nph.12260
- Issue published online: 19 JUN 2013
- Article first published online: 22 APR 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 1 MAR 2013
- Manuscript Received: 31 DEC 2012
- National Science Foundation En-Gen. Grant Number: EF-0723814
- LiT. Grant Number: IOS-1024966
- flowering time;
- life history;
- local adaptation;
- Mimulus guttatus ;
- quantitative trait loci;
- Species with extensive ranges experience highly variable environments with respect to temperature, light and soil moisture. Synchronizing the transition from vegetative to floral growth is important to employ favorable conditions for reproduction. Optimal timing of this transition might be different for semelparous annual plants and iteroparous perennial plants.
- We studied variation in the critical photoperiod necessary for floral induction and the requirement for a period of cold-chilling (vernalization) in 46 populations of annuals and perennials in the Mimulus guttatus species complex. We then examined critical photoperiod and vernalization QTLs in growth chambers using F2 progeny from annual and perennial parents that differed in their requirements for flowering.
- We identify extensive variation in critical photoperiod, with most annual populations requiring substantially shorter day lengths to initiate flowering than perennial populations. We discover a novel type of vernalization requirement in perennial populations that is contingent on plants experiencing short days first. QTL analyses identify two large-effect QTLs which influence critical photoperiod. In two separate vernalization experiments we discover each set of crosses contain different large-effect QTLs for vernalization.
- Mimulus guttatus harbors extensive variation in critical photoperiod and vernalization that may be a consequence of local adaptation.