Fine-scale spatial genetic structure of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) investigated with neutral microsatellites and functional mating type genes

Authors

  • Claude Murat,

    Corresponding author
    • INRA, UMR 1136 INRA Université de Lorraine ‘Interactions Arbres-Microorganismes’, Labex ARBRE, FR EFABA, Champenoux, France
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.
  • Andrea Rubini,

    1. Plant Genetics Institute – Perugia Division, National Research Council, Perugia, Italy
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.
  • Claudia Riccioni,

    1. Plant Genetics Institute – Perugia Division, National Research Council, Perugia, Italy
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  • Herminia De la Varga,

    1. INRA, UMR 1136 INRA Université de Lorraine ‘Interactions Arbres-Microorganismes’, Labex ARBRE, FR EFABA, Champenoux, France
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  • Emila Akroume,

    1. INRA, UMR 1136 INRA Université de Lorraine ‘Interactions Arbres-Microorganismes’, Labex ARBRE, FR EFABA, Champenoux, France
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  • Beatrice Belfiori,

    1. Plant Genetics Institute – Perugia Division, National Research Council, Perugia, Italy
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  • Marco Guaragno,

    1. Plant Genetics Institute – Perugia Division, National Research Council, Perugia, Italy
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  • François Le Tacon,

    1. INRA, UMR 1136 INRA Université de Lorraine ‘Interactions Arbres-Microorganismes’, Labex ARBRE, FR EFABA, Champenoux, France
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  • Christophe Robin,

    1. Université de Lorraine – INRA, UMR 1121 ‘Agronomie et Environnement Nancy-Colmar’, Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex, France
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  • Fabien Halkett,

    1. INRA, UMR 1136 INRA Université de Lorraine ‘Interactions Arbres-Microorganismes’, Labex ARBRE, FR EFABA, Champenoux, France
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  • Francis Martin,

    1. INRA, UMR 1136 INRA Université de Lorraine ‘Interactions Arbres-Microorganismes’, Labex ARBRE, FR EFABA, Champenoux, France
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  • Francesco Paolocci

    Corresponding author
    1. Plant Genetics Institute – Perugia Division, National Research Council, Perugia, Italy
    • INRA, UMR 1136 INRA Université de Lorraine ‘Interactions Arbres-Microorganismes’, Labex ARBRE, FR EFABA, Champenoux, France
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Authors for correspondence:

Claude Murat

Fax: +33 (0)3 83 39 40 69

Email: claude.murat@nancy.inra.fr

Francesco Paolocci

Fax +39 075 5014869

Email: francesco.paolocci@igv.cnr.it

Summary

  • The genetic structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal populations results from both vegetative and sexual propagation. In this study, we have analysed the spatial genetic structure of Tuber melanosporum populations, a heterothallic ascomycete that produces edible fruit bodies.
  • Ectomycorrhizas from oaks and hazels from two orchards were mapped and genotyped using simple sequence repeat markers and the mating type locus. The distribution of the two T. melanosporum mating types was also monitored in the soil. In one orchard, the genetic profiles of the ascocarps were compared with those of the underlying mycorrhizas.
  • A pronounced spatial genetic structure was found. The maximum genet sizes were 2.35 and 4.70 m in the two orchards, with most manifesting a size < 1 m. Few genets persisted throughout two seasons. A nonrandom distribution pattern of the T. melanosporum was observed, resulting in field patches colonized by genets that shared the same mating types.
  • Our findings suggest that competition occurs between genets and provide basic information on T. melanosporum propagation patterns that are relevant for the management of productive truffle orchards.

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