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Fig. S1 P700 oxidation kinetics in leaf discs infiltrated with distilled water or methyl viologen under far-red light illumination in C3, C3–C4 and C4-like Flaveria species.

Fig. S2 Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of total leaf soluble proteins from C3, C3–C4, C4-like and C4 Flaveria species.

Fig. S3 NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex activity in C3, C3–C4, C4-like and C4 Flaveria species.

Fig. S4 Background labelling with rabbit serum in in situ immunolocalization.

Fig. S5 Measurement of total length of grana thylakoid and stroma thylakoid membranes of bundle sheath (BS) chloroplasts or mesophyll (M) chloroplasts in C4 Flaveria bidentis.