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Fig. S1 Optical micrograph of suspension cells of rice.

Fig. S2 SEM/TEM images and EDX analyses of suspension cells of rice.

Fig. S3 Optical and fluorescent images of suspension cells and protoplasts of rice.

Fig. S4 The concentration of Si in whole cells and in protoplasts of rice.

Fig. S5 Representative XPS spectra (raw data) for Si2p of the suspension cells, isolated cell walls and field-grown leaves.

Fig. S6 Viability of suspension cells.

Table S1 Solution compositions of different culture medium

Methods S1 Details of electron microscopy, protoplast culture and cell wall staining methods.