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Fig. S1 Plant payoff matrix.

Fig. S2 Microbe payoff matrix.

Fig. S3 Seasonal variation in soil temperature at 5 cm depth for 2011 at the Morgan Monroe State Forest AmeriFlux site, IN, USA.

Fig. S4 Seasonal fluctuation in the size of the SOC pool for the first 30 yr of the baseline model simulation.

Table S1 Baseline model parameters modified from Allison et al. (2010)

Table S2 Parameter modifications from the baseline model for the three scenarios

Notes S1 Detailed descriptions of the game theoretic model.

Notes S2 Detailed descriptions of the microbial physiological model.