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Fig. S1 Annotated optical images of the internode region taken from an adjacent section to that analysed with high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS).

Fig. S2 Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) colour merge image of the internode area shown in Fig. 2, showing variations in Mn, Zn and Fe in the fundamental parenchyma.

Fig. S3 High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) images showing As and S highly localized in the companion cell vacuoles of an internode large vascular bundle.

Fig. S4 Graphs of mean S intensity vs mean As intensity from the companion cells of a diffuse vascular bundle, enlarged vascular bundle, leaf sheath vascular bundle and a small vascular bundle.

Fig. S5 High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) images across the phloem region of a large vascular bundle from the internode showing the pairing of the companion cells and the sieve tubes and the cell wall localization of Cu.

Fig. S6 Annotated synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) image and corresponding stained optical image showing the morphology of the node.

Fig. S7 High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) images showing the strong localization of Si in the cell walls between the fundamental parenchyma cells and the phloem of a diffuse vascular bundle.

Fig. S8 Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) image of another node section showing the strong localization of Mn along the epidermal cells towards the top of the image.

Please note: Wiley Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.