Profiling functions of ectomycorrhizal diversity and root structuring in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes
Article first published online: 14 OCT 2013
© 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust
Volume 201, Issue 2, pages 610–622, January 2014
How to Cite
Velmala, S. M., Rajala, T., Heinonsalo, J., Taylor, A. F. S. and Pennanen, T. (2014), Profiling functions of ectomycorrhizal diversity and root structuring in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes. New Phytologist, 201: 610–622. doi: 10.1111/nph.12542
- Issue published online: 18 DEC 2013
- Article first published online: 14 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Received: 20 JUN 2013
- Academy of Finland. Grant Number: 128229
- 1995. Patterns and regulation of mycorrhizal plant and fungal diversity. In: Collins HP, Robertson GP, Klug MJ, eds. The significance and regulation of soil biodiversity. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 47–62. , , , , , .
- 2012. Regulation of genes involved in nitrogen utilization on different C/N ratios and nitrogen sources in the model ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum. Mycorrhiza 22: 515–524. , , , , , , , .
- 2011. lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using S4 classes. R package version 0.999375-42 [WWW document]. URL http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4 [accessed 10 January 2012]. , , .
- 2001. Ectomycorrhizal diversity alters growth and nutrient acquisition of grey birch (Betula populifolia) in host-symbiont culture conditions. New Phytologist 152: 139–149. , .
- 2005. Phosphors source alters host plant response to ectomycorrhizal diversity. Mycorrhiza 15: 513–523. , .
- 1995. The structure and function of the vegetative mycelium of ectomycorrhizal plants. VI. Activities of nutrient mobilizing enzymes in birch litter colonized by Paxillus involutus (Fr.) Fr. New Phytologist 130: 411–417. , .
- 1998. Which species? What kind of diversity? Which ecosystem function? Some problems in studies of relations between biodiversity and ecosystem function. Applied Soil Ecology 10: 191–199. .
- 2003. Juvenile nitrogen uptake capacities and root architecture of two open-pollinated families of Picea abies. Effects of nitrogen source and ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Journal of Plant Physiology 160: 1211–1218. , .
- 1957. An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 27: 325–349. , .
- 2007. Soil niche effect on species diversity and catabolic activities in an ectomycorrhizal fungal community. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39: 1947–1955. , , , .
- 1999. Intraspecific physiological variation: implications for understanding functional diversity in ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza 9: 125–135. .
- 1998. Physiology of organic nitrogen acquisition by ectomycorrhizal fungi and ectomycorrhizas. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 22: 21–44. , .
- 2010. The role of ectomycorrhizal communities in forest ecosystem processes: new perspectives and emerging concepts. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 42: 679–698. , , , , , , , , .
- 1999. Laccase activity of forest litter. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31: 1239–1244. , , , , .
- 2001. Community ecology of ectomycorrhizal fungi: an advancing interdisciplinary field. New Phytologist 150: 555–562. .
- 1989. Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C3 plants. Oecologia 78: 9–19. .
- 2008. Variation of ectomycorrhizal colonization in Norway spruce seedlings in Finnish forest nurseries. Silva Fennica 42: 571–585. , , .
- 1993. ITS primers with enchanced specificity for basidiomycetes - an application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rust. Molecular Ecology 2: 113–118. , .
- 2000. Ecophysiology of northern spruce species: the performance of planted seedlings. Ottawa, Canada: NRC Research Press. .
- 1979. A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 6: 65–70. .
- 2012. New primers to amplify the fungal ITS2 region – evaluation by 454-sequencing of artificial and natural communities. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 82: 666–677. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2012. The importance of individuals: intraspecific diversity of mycorrhizal plants and fungi in ecosystems. New Phytologist 194: 614–628. , , , .
- 2009. Differences in 15N uptake amongst spruce seedlings colonized by three pioneer ectomycorrhizal fungi in the field. Fungal Ecology 2: 110–120. , , , , , , .
- 2001. Context dependent effects of ectomycorrhizal species richness on tree seedling productivity. Oikos 93: 353–364. , , , .
- 2010. fHANT-AC genes of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor are not repressed by l-glutamine allowing simultaneous utilization of nitrate and organic nitrogen sources. Environmental Microbiology Reports 2: 541–553. , , .
- 2012. Growth responce of drought- stresed Pinus sylvestris seedlings to single- and multi-species inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi. PLoS ONE 7: e35275. , , , , .
- 1977. Experiences with Picea abies cuttings propagation in Germany and problems connected with large scale application. Silvae Genetica 26: 197–203. , .
- 2007. Interactions between extraradical ectomycorrhizal mycelia, microbes associated with the mycelia and growth rate of Norway spruce. New Phytologist 173: 798–807. , , , .
- 2006. Ectomycorrhizal community structure varies among Norway spruce (Picea abies) clones. New Phytologist 171: 815–824. , , .
- 2013. Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal assemblages in a monospecific forest in relation to host tree genotype. Frontiers in Plant Science 4: 103. , , .
- 2003. Genetic variation in nitrogen uptake and growth in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal Picea abies (L.) Karst. seedlings. Forest Science 49: 258–267. , , , , , .
- 1969. The influence of ectomycorrhizal fungi on the resistance of pine roots to pathogenic infections: antagonism of mycorrhizal fungi to root pathogenic fungi and soil bacteria. Phytopathology 59: 153–163. .
- 1971. Formation of Ectomycorrhizae on Half-Sib Progenies of slash pine in aseptic culture. Forest Science 17: 488–492. , .
- 1953. Physiology of mycorrhizal relations in plants. Annual Revision of Plant Physiology 4: 325–346. .
- 1968. The Mathew effect in science. Science, New Series 159: 56–63. .
- 1993. Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59: 695–700. , , .
- 2012. vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.0-3. [WWW Document]. URL http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan [accessed 3 September 2012]. , , , , , , , , , .
- 2011. Rethiking ectomycorrhizal succession: are root density and hyphal exploration types drivers of spatial and temporal zonation. Fungal Ecology 4: 233–240. , , .
- 2000. Mobilization and transfer of nutrients from litter to tree seedling via the vegetative mycelium of ectomycorrhizal plants. New Phytologist 145: 301–309. , .
- 2011. Optimized assay and storage conditions for enzyme activity profiling of ectomycorrhizae. Mycorrhiza 21: 589–600. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2011. Enzyme secretion by ECM fungi and exploitation of mineral nutrients from soil organic matter. Annals of Forest Science 68: 25–32. , .
- 2004. A rapid and highly sensitive method for measuring enzyme activities on single mycorrhizal tips using 4-methylumbelliferone-labelled fluorogenic substrates in a microplate system. Journal of Microbial Methods 58: 233–241. , , , , , , .
- R Development Core Team. 2012. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. ISBN 3-900051-07-0. URL http://www.R-project.org/.
- 2010. Relationship between wood-inhabiting fungi determined by molecular analysis (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and quality of decaying logs. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40: 2384–2397. , , , .
- 2003. Mycorrhizas and nutrient cycling in ecosystems – a journey towards relevance. New Phytologist 157: 475–492. , .
- 2011. Secreted enzymatic activities of ectomycorrhizal fungi as a case study of functional diversity and functional redundancy. Annals of Forest Science 68: 69–80. , .
- 2002. Retrospective genetic testing of Picea abies under controlled temperature and moisture regimes. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32: 81–91. , , .
- 2013. Independent roles of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic communities in soil organic matter decomposition. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 57: 282–291. , , , , , , , .
- 2009. The effect of nursery substrate and fertilization on the growth and ectomycorrhizal status of containerized and outplanted seedlings of Picea abies. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39: 64–75. , , , , , .
- 2013. Genetic host tree effects on the ectomycorrhizal community and root characteristics of Norway spruce. Mycorrhiza 1: 22–31. , , , , .
- 1999. Is “sampling effect” a problem for experiments investigating biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships? Oikos 87: 403–407. .
- 2001. Functional redundancy in heterogeneous environments: implications for conservation. Ecology Letters 4: 177–179. , .
- 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genesfor phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White T, eds. PCR protocols guide to methods and amplifications. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press, 315–322. , , , .
- 2009. ggplot2: elegant graphics for data analysis. New York, NY, USA: Springer. .