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Fig. S1 Probability density distributions of the mean wood density measured from each tree at the five study sites.

Fig. S2 De-trended tree-ring width chronologies at the five study sites and the 20 closest sites in the European tree-ring network.

Fig. S3 Percentage difference between wood density corrected and uncorrected total above-ground woody biomass estimates.

Fig. S4 Monthly sums of gross primary productivity at the five study sites.

Fig. S5 Magnitude and inter-annual variability of the eddy-covariance parameters.

Fig. S6 Relationships between tree-ring and eddy-covariance measurements during all possible combinations of months over the previous year April–December period.

Table S1 Critical correlations for different significance levels obtained from a Bonferroni correction to the P values