Superior aluminium (Al) tolerance of Stylosanthes is achieved mainly by malate synthesis through an Al-enhanced malic enzyme, SgME1

Authors

  • Lili Sun,

    1. State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Root Biology Center, South China Agricultural University, Guangdong, China
    2. Institute of Tropical Crop Genetic Resources, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences, College of Agriculture, Hainan University, Hainan, China
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  • Cuiyue Liang,

    1. State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Root Biology Center, South China Agricultural University, Guangdong, China
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  • Zhijian Chen,

    1. State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Root Biology Center, South China Agricultural University, Guangdong, China
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  • Pandao Liu,

    1. State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Root Biology Center, South China Agricultural University, Guangdong, China
    2. Institute of Tropical Crop Genetic Resources, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences, College of Agriculture, Hainan University, Hainan, China
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  • Jiang Tian,

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Root Biology Center, South China Agricultural University, Guangdong, China
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  • Guodao Liu,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Tropical Crop Genetic Resources, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences, College of Agriculture, Hainan University, Hainan, China
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  • Hong Liao

    1. State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Root Biology Center, South China Agricultural University, Guangdong, China
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Summary

  • Stylosanthes (stylo) is a dominant leguminous forage in the tropics. Previous studies suggest that stylo has great potential for aluminium (Al) tolerance, but little is known about the underlying mechanism.
  • A novel malic enzyme, SgME1, was identified from the Al-tolerant genotype TPRC2001-1 after 72 h Al exposure by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and the encoding gene was cloned and characterized via heterologous expression in yeast, Arabidopsis thaliana and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) hairy roots.
  • Internal Al detoxification might be mainly responsible for the 72 h Al tolerance of TPRC2001-1, as indicated by 5.8-fold higher root malate concentrations and approximately two-fold higher Al concentrations in roots and root symplasts of TPRC2001-1 than those of the Al-sensitive genotype Fine-stem. An accompanying increase in malate secretion might also reduce a fraction of Al uptake in TPRC2001-1. Gene and protein expression of SgME1 was only enhanced in TPRC2001-1 after 72 h Al exposure. Overexpressing SgME1 enhanced malate synthesis and rescued yeast, A. thaliana and bean hairy roots from Al toxicity via increasing intracellular malate concentrations and/or accompanied malate exudation.
  • These results provide strong evidence that superior Al tolerance of stylo is mainly conferred by Al-enhanced malate synthesis, functionally controlled by SgME1.

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