• aluminium (Al) tolerance;
  • malate exudation;
  • malate synthesis;
  • malic enzyme;
  • Stylosanthes


  • Stylosanthes (stylo) is a dominant leguminous forage in the tropics. Previous studies suggest that stylo has great potential for aluminium (Al) tolerance, but little is known about the underlying mechanism.
  • A novel malic enzyme, SgME1, was identified from the Al-tolerant genotype TPRC2001-1 after 72 h Al exposure by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and the encoding gene was cloned and characterized via heterologous expression in yeast, Arabidopsis thaliana and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) hairy roots.
  • Internal Al detoxification might be mainly responsible for the 72 h Al tolerance of TPRC2001-1, as indicated by 5.8-fold higher root malate concentrations and approximately two-fold higher Al concentrations in roots and root symplasts of TPRC2001-1 than those of the Al-sensitive genotype Fine-stem. An accompanying increase in malate secretion might also reduce a fraction of Al uptake in TPRC2001-1. Gene and protein expression of SgME1 was only enhanced in TPRC2001-1 after 72 h Al exposure. Overexpressing SgME1 enhanced malate synthesis and rescued yeast, A. thaliana and bean hairy roots from Al toxicity via increasing intracellular malate concentrations and/or accompanied malate exudation.
  • These results provide strong evidence that superior Al tolerance of stylo is mainly conferred by Al-enhanced malate synthesis, functionally controlled by SgME1.