Soluble phenylpropanoids are involved in the defense response of Arabidopsis against Verticillium longisporum
Article first published online: 31 JAN 2014
© 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust
Volume 202, Issue 3, pages 823–837, May 2014
How to Cite
König, S., Feussner, K., Kaever, A., Landesfeind, M., Thurow, C., Karlovsky, P., Gatz, C., Polle, A. and Feussner, I. (2014), Soluble phenylpropanoids are involved in the defense response of Arabidopsis against Verticillium longisporum. New Phytologist, 202: 823–837. doi: 10.1111/nph.12709
- Issue published online: 10 APR 2014
- Article first published online: 31 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 4 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Received: 18 OCT 2013
- DFG Research Unit. Grant Numbers: FOR546 Fe 446/6, Ka 1209/3, Po 362/15
- FL3 INST. Grant Number: 186/822-1
- coniferyl esters;
- infection markers;
- metabolite fingerprinting;
- sinapate esters;
- Verticillium sp
- Verticillium longisporum is a soil-borne vascular pathogen causing economic loss in rape. Using the model plant Arabidopsis this study analyzed metabolic changes upon fungal infection in order to identify possible defense strategies of Brassicaceae against this fungus.
- Metabolite fingerprinting identified infection-induced metabolites derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Targeted analysis confirmed the accumulation of sinapoyl glucosides, coniferin, syringin and lignans in leaves from early stages of infection on. At later stages, the amounts of amino acids increased.
- To test the contribution of the phenylpropanoid pathway, mutants in the pathway were analyzed. The sinapate-deficient mutant fah1-2 showed stronger infection symptoms than wild-type plants, which is most likely due to the lack of sinapoyl esters. Moreover, the coniferin accumulating transgenic plant UGT72E2-OE was less susceptible. Consistently, sinapoyl glucose, coniferyl alcohol and coniferin inhibited fungal growth and melanization in vitro, whereas sinapyl alcohol and syringin did not. The amount of lignin was not significantly altered supporting the notion that soluble derivatives of the phenylpropanoid pathway contribute to defense.
- These data show that soluble phenylpropanoids are important for the defense response of Arabidopsis against V. longisporum and that metabolite fingerprinting is a valuable tool to identify infection-relevant metabolic markers.