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Fig. S1 Consensus tree for 104 Primulina species based on combined sequence data from internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) and three plastid markers (trnL-trnF, rpl32-trnL and atpB-rbcL).

Fig. S2 Somatic metaphase chromosome numbers of Primulina species investigated in this study.

Fig. S3 Representative histograms showing the different genome sizes of Primulina species and intraspecific genome size variation for two populations of P. eburna using Solanum lycopersicum or Oryza sativa as internal reference standards.

Fig. S4 Squared-change parsimony reconstruction of ancestral genome size on a consensus tree of 104 Primulina species. Different genome sizes are represented by different colors.

Table S1 Summary information of the Primulina species included in this study: number of individuals and populations per species used for flow cytometry, bedrock types (Karst and non-Karst), 2C DNA content (intraspecies range and variation, and mean 2C value with standard), specific leaf area (SLA), and latitude

Table S2 Genbank accession numbers for taxa used in phylogenetic analyses

Table S3 Summary correlations between bioclimatic variables and genome size estimated by ordinary least-square regression (OLS) and phylogenetic generalized least-squares (PGLS) analyses