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Fig. S1 Localization of the sampling sites in Québec, Canada, Alaska, USA, and Siberia, Russia; as well as a picture of the tri-membered lichen Peltigera aphthosa taken in the field.

Fig. S2 Comparison of metals content in ppm (μgmetal gdryweight−1) between unwashed lichens, (i.e. exposition) (UWT), ox/EDTA-washed lichen thalli and cephalodia.

Table S1 P-values of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) Holm-Sidak from Fig. 1

Table S2 Content and ratio of vanadium (V) and aluminium (Al) for different compartments of Peltigera aphthosa