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Fig. S1 Expression stability of reference genes.

Fig. S2 Survival of germinated Arabidopsis Col-0 and aba2-1 seeds incubated in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and directly rehydrated, and re-establishment of desiccation tolerance in germinated Arabidopsis Col-0 and aba2-1 seeds incubated in 1 μM abscisic acid (ABA) solution in the absence of PEG.

Fig. S3 RD29A gene expression and RD29A::LUC activity of germinated Arabidopsis seeds in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG) incubation.

Fig. S4 Heat maps showing the expression of 13 abscisic acid (ABA) signaling genes in the shoots and roots of young seedlings under different abiotic stresses.

Table S1 Genes and primer sequences used in this study

Table S2 Quantification of abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites in Arabidopsis seeds at testa rupture (I), at radicle protrusion (II), when showing a primary root of 0.3–0.5 mm in length (III) and at the appearance of the first root hairs before greening of cotyledons (IV) after 5 and 24 h of incubation in polyethylene glycol (PEG)

Table S3 Details of the heat maps displaying the gene expression profile of a pre-set of 38 candidate genes during seed development and germination according to the Bio-Array Resource database, eFP browser at the BAR website (

Methods S1 Plant material, abscisic acid (ABA) extraction and quantification by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.