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Fig. S1 Heatmaps and two-way hierarchical clustering of biomarker data from plant litter.

Fig. S2 Heatmaps and two-way hierarchical clustering of biomarker data from soils.

Fig. S3 Extent of degradation of plant sterols in invaded and noninvaded soils.

Fig. S4 Acid to aldehyde ratio of the vanillyl units of lignin in invaded and noninvaded soils.

Fig. S5 δ13C values of organic matter in invaded and noninvaded soils.

Fig. S6 Effect of distance from the edge of stand of knotweed on soil C at three old-field sites.

Fig S7 Organic carbon content in invaded and adjacent noninvaded soils after H2O2 oxidation.

Table S1 Results of ANOVA of principal component analysis of soil biomarker analysis

Table S2 Results of post hoc mean separation test from ANOVA of principal component axis

Table S3 Aliphatic lipids and phenols identified in solvent extracts of soil and plant litter

Table S4 Aliphatic lipids and phenols identified from the base hydrolysates of soil and plant litter

Methods S1 Detailed methods for chemical analyses.

Methods S2 Calculation of soil carbon budget under kudzu invasion.

Notes S1 Description of study species.