• 2′-deoxymugineic acid (DMA);
  • iron deficiency;
  • phytosiderophore;
  • rhizosphere;
  • strategy II;
  • trace elements;
  • Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro


  • For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture.
  • Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil solution concentrations and PS release of the Tamaro cultivar were soil-dependent, suggesting complex interactions of soil characteristics (salinity, trace metal availability) and the physiological status of the plant and the related regulation (amount and timing) of PS release.
  • Our results demonstrate that carbon and energy investment into Fe acquisition under natural growth conditions is significantly smaller than previously derived from zero Fe-hydroponic studies. Based on experimental data, we calculated that during the investigated period (21–47 d after germination), PS release initially exceeded Fe plant uptake 10-fold, but significantly declined after c. 5 wk after germination.
  • Phytosiderophore exudation observed under natural growth conditions is a prerequisite for a more accurate and realistic assessment of Fe mobilization processes in the rhizosphere using both experimental and modeling approaches.