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Fig. S1 Schematic representation of the bidirectional interaction between benefactor and beneficiary species.

Fig. S2 A priori structural model for the relationship of variables recorded with the descriptive approach.

Table S1 The study sites, climate data and cushion plant species

Table S2 Standardized and unstandardized path coefficients of the structural equation model

Table S3 Summary of significant direct, indirect and total effects on the beneficiary feedback effect