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Table S1 List and details of the sites sampled for fresh (38 populations) and herbarium (57 individuals) materials of Smilax aspera

Table S2 GenBank accession numbers of 22 Smilax aspera haplotypes

Table S3 Alphabetically arranged species of Smilacaceae, Rhipogonaceae, and Philesiaceae analysed for this study (with GenBank accession numbers)

Table S4 DNA sequence polymorphisms detected in ITS and seven plastid regions of Smilax aspera for 22 haplotypes (Hap1–22)

Table S5 Estimates of genetic diversity of 38 Smilax aspera populations surveyed for cpDNA (atpB–rbcL, trnC–ycf6, ndhA intron) sequence variation

Table S6 Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVAs) based on cpDNA (atpB–rbcL, trnC–ycf6, ndhA intron) sequences of Smilax aspera populations