As the world shifts from American-led Globalization 1.0 to 2.0—an interdependence of plural identities where no one country or group of nations is at the helm—a vacuum is forming. The intellectual hegemony of Western ideas of development and society no longer prevail, but new models are yet to be found.

In the wake of this vacuum, we are witnessing, as Pankaj Mishra writes, worldwide “mutinies” against the old order along with a surge of nationalism and xenophobia that is looking to imagined organic unities of the past, as Elif Shafak writes. What fresh, non-global ideologies might emerge? Or might a new hybrid cosmopolitan path that doesn't erase plural identities, but erases boundaries that close off instead of open up, create new opportunities for a peaceful and richer global civilization?