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A systematic review and meta-analysis of micronutrient intakes during pregnancy in developed countries

Authors

  • Michelle L Blumfield,

    1. School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
    2. Mothers and Babies Research Centre, Level 3, Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia
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  • Alexis J Hure,

    1. Mothers and Babies Research Centre, Level 3, Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia
    2. School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
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  • Lesley Macdonald-Wicks,

    1. School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
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  • Roger Smith,

    1. Mothers and Babies Research Centre, Level 3, Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia
    2. School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
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  • Clare E Collins

    Corresponding author
    1. Priority Research Centre in Physical Activity and Nutrition, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
    • School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
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  • Affiliations: ML Blumfield is with the School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia, and the Mothers and Babies Research Centre, Level 3, Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia. AJ Hure is with the School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia, and the Mothers and Babies Research Centre, Level 3, Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia. L Macdonald-Wicks is with the School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia. R Smith is with the School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia, and the Mothers and Babies Research Centre, Level 3, Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia. CE Collins is with the School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia, and the Priority Research Centre in Physical Activity and Nutrition, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.

Correspondence: C Collins, HA12 Hunter Building, University Drive, NSW 2310, Australia. E-mail: Clare.Collins@newcastle.edu.au, Phone: +61-2-4921-5646, Fax: +61-2-4921-7053.

Abstract

Micronutrient status during pregnancy influences maternal and fetal health, birth outcomes, and the risk of chronic disease in offspring. Research reporting dietary intake during pregnancy in nationally representative population samples, however, is limited. This review summarizes the micronutrient intakes of pregnant women from developed countries and compares them with relevant national recommendations. A systematic search without date limits was conducted. All studies reporting the micronutrient intakes of pregnant women were considered, irrespective of design. Two authors independently identified studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality. Nutritional adequacy was summarized, with confounding factors considered. Meta-analysis data are reported for developed countries collectively, by geographical region, and by dietary methodology. Pregnant women in developed countries are at risk of suboptimal micronutrient intakes. Folate, iron, and vitamin D intakes were consistently below nutrient recommendations in each geographical region, and calcium intakes in Japan were below the Japanese recommendations and the average intake levels in other developed countries. Research examining the implications of potential nutrient insufficiency on maternal and offspring health outcomes is needed along with improvements in the quality of dietary intake reporting.

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