Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and the structural deterioration of bone tissue. It is estimated that 44 million Americans and 55% of those over 50 years of age are currently affected by this disease. Among other risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, dietary fat in general and essential fatty acids (EFA) in particular have recently been investigated because of their suspected impact on the bone remodeling process. This article reviews the growing body of literature concerning EFA and bone health. In particular, two recent large prospective cohort studies evaluating the association between multiple types of EFA and risk of osteoporotic fracture are highlighted. The results of these studies are placed in context with the existing literature, and recommendations for future investigation are presented.