• 1
    McGwin G, Khoury R, Cross J, et al. Vision impairment and eye care utilization among Americans 50 and older. Curr Eye Res. 2010;35:451458.
  • 2
    World Health Organization. Global Initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness: Action Plan 2006–2011. Geneva: WHO Press; 2007.
  • 3
    Tabin G, Chen M, Espandar L. Cataract surgery for the developing world. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2008;19:5559.
  • 4
    Athanasiov PA, Edussuriya K, Senaratne T, et al. Cataract in central Sri Lanka: cataract surgical coverage and self-reported barriers to cataract surgery. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2009;37:780784.
  • 5
    Chiu CJ, Taylor A. Nutritional antioxidants and age-related cataract and maculopathy. Exp Eye Res. 2007;84:229245.
  • 6
    Siegal M, Chiu CJ, Taylor A. Antioxidant status and risk for cataract. In: Bendich A , Deckelbaum RJ , eds. Preventive Nutrition: The Comprehensive Guide for Health Professionals. 3rd ed. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press Inc.; 2005:463503.
  • 7
    Taylor A. Nutritional and environmental influences on risk for cataract. In: Taylor A , ed. Nutritional and Environmental Influences on the Eye. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1999:458487.
  • 8
    Martinez-Lapiscina EH, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Guillen Grima F, et al. Dietary fat intake and incidence of cataracts: the SUN Prospective study in the cohort of Navarra, Spain [in Spanish]. Med Clin (Barc). 2010;134:194201.
  • 9
    Chiu CJ, Morris MS, Rogers G, et al. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index in relation to the odds of early cortical and nuclear lens opacities. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:14111416.
  • 10
    Chiu CJ, Milton RC, Gensler G, et al. Dietary carbohydrate intake and glycemic index in relation to cortical and nuclear lens opacities in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:11771184.
  • 11
    Chiu CJ, Robman L, McCarty CA, et al. Dietary carbohydrate in relation to cortical and nuclear lens opacities in the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:28972905.
  • 12
    Chiu C-J, Liu S, Willett WC, et al. Informing food choices and health outcomes by use of the dietary glycemic index. Nutr Rev. 2011;69:231242.
  • 13
    Wu SY, Leske MC. Antioxidants and cataract formation: a summary review. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2000;40:7181.
  • 14
    Taylor A, Jacques PF, Epstein EM. Relations among aging, antioxidant status, and cataract. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62(Suppl 6):S1439S1447.
  • 15
    Fan X, Reneker LW, Obrenovich ME, et al. Vitamin C mediates chemical aging of lens crystallins by the Maillard reaction in a humanized mouse model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1691216917.
  • 16
    Chitchumroonchokchai C, Bomser JA, Glamm JE, et al. Xanthophylls and α-tocopherol decrease UVB-induced lipid peroxidation and stress signaling in human lens epithelial cells. J Nutr. 2004;134:32253232.
  • 17
    Cheng R, Feng Q, Ortwerth BJ. LC-MS display of the total modified amino acids in cataract lens proteins and in lens proteins glycated by ascorbic acid in vitro. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1762:533543.
  • 18
    National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Eye diagram. Available at: = Normal+Eye+Images&match = all. Electronic resource no. NEA04. Accessed June 11, 2010.
  • 19
    Vrensen GF. Early cortical lens opacities: a short overview. Acta Ophthalmol. 2009;87:602610.
  • 20
    Perng MD, Sandilands A, Kuszak J, et al. The intermediate filament systems in the eye lens. Methods Cell Biol. 2004;78:597624.
  • 21
    Srivastava OP. Age-related increase in concentration and aggregation of degraded polypeptides in human lenses. Exp Eye Res. 1988;47:525543.
  • 22
    Taylor A, Nowell T. Oxidative stress and antioxidant function in relation to risk for cataract. In: Sies H , ed. Antioxidants in Disease Mechanisms and Therapy. Advances in Pharmacology. San Diego: Academic Press; 1997:515536.
  • 23
    Chylack LT Jr, Wolfe JK, Singer DM, et al. The Lens Opacities Classification System III. The Longitudinal Study of Cataract Study Group. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111:831836.
  • 24
    Taylor HR, West SK. A simple system for the clinical grading of lens opacities. Yan Ke Xue Bao. 1988;4:1418.
  • 25
    Chylack LT Jr. Function of the lens and methods of quantifying cataract. In: Taylor A , ed. Nutritional and Environmental Influences on the Eye. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1999:2552.
  • 26
    Chang JR, Koo E, Agron E, et al. Risk factors associated with incident cataracts and cataract surgery in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS): AREDS report number 32. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:21132119.
  • 27
    Moise MM, Benjamin LM, Doris TM, et al. Role of Mediterranean diet, tropical vegetables rich in antioxidants, and sunlight exposure in blindness, cataract and glaucoma among African type 2 diabetics. Int J Ophthalmol. 2012;5:231237.
  • 28
    West SK, Longstreth JD, Munoz BE, et al. Model of risk of cortical cataract in the US population with exposure to increased ultraviolet radiation due to stratospheric ozone depletion. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;162:10801088.
  • 29
    McCarty CA, Taylor HR. A review of the epidemiologic evidence linking ultraviolet radiation and cataracts. Dev Ophthalmol. 2002;35:2131.
  • 30
    Mansour AM, Ghabra M. Cataractogenesis after repeat laser in situ keratomileusis. Case Rep Ophthalmol. 2012;3:262265.
  • 31
    Walls HL, Walls KL, Benke G. Eye disease resulting from increased use of fluorescent lighting as a climate change mitigation strategy. Am J Public Health. 2011;101:22222225.
  • 32
    Costagliola C, Menzione M, Chiosi F, et al. Retinal phototoxicity induced by hydrochlorothiazide after exposure to a UV tanning device. Photochem Photobiol. 2008;84:12941297.
  • 33
    Weatherall M, Clay J, James K, et al. Dose-response relationship of inhaled corticosteroids and cataracts: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respirology. 2009;14:983990.
  • 34
    West SK. Smoking and the risk of eye diseases. In: Taylor A , ed. Nutritional and Environmental Influences on the Eye. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1999:151164.
  • 35
    Kelly SP, Thornton J, Edwards R, et al. Smoking and cataract: review of causal association. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2005;31:23952404.
  • 36
    Richter GM, Choudhury F, Torres M, et al. Risk factors for incident cortical, nuclear, posterior subcapsular, and mixed lens opacities: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:20402047.
  • 37
    Seddon JM, Christen WG, Manson JE, et al. The use of vitamin supplements and the risk of cataract among US male physicians. Am J Public Health. 1994;84:788792.
  • 38
    Virtamo J, Pietinen P, Huttunen JK, et al. Incidence of cancer and mortality following α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation: a postintervention follow-up. JAMA. 2003;290:476485.
  • 39
    Meyer LM, Lofgren S, Ho YS, et al. Absence of glutaredoxin1 increases lens susceptibility to oxidative stress induced by UVR-B. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:833839.
  • 40
    Reddy VN. Glutathione and its function in the lens – an overview. Exp Eye Res. 1990;50:771778.
  • 41
    Xing KY, Lou MF. Effect of age on the thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) and thioredoxin systems in the human lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:65986604.
  • 42
    Donma O, Yorulmaz E, Pekel H, et al. Blood and lens lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in normal individuals, senile and diabetic cataractous patients. Curr Eye Res. 2002;25:916.
  • 43
    Garner MH, Spector A. Selective oxidation of cysteine and methionine in normal and senile cataractous lenses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:12741277.
  • 44
    Weikel KA, Fitzgerald P, Shang F, et al. Natural history of age-related retinal lesions that precede AMD in mice fed high or low glycemic index diets. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:622632.
  • 45
    Uchiki T, Weikel KA, Jiao W, et al. Glycation-altered proteolysis as a pathobiologic mechanism that links dietary glycemic index, aging, and age-related disease (in non diabetics). Aging Cell. 2012;11:113.
  • 46
    Taylor A. Mechanistically linking age-related diseases and dietary carbohydrate via autophagy and the ubiquitin proteolytic systems. Autophagy. 2012;8:14041406.
  • 47
    Monnier VM, Cerami A. Detection of nonenzymatic browning products in human lens. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1983;760:97103.
  • 48
    Fuentealba D, Friguet B, Silva E. Advanced glycation endproducts induce photocrosslinking and oxidation of bovine lens proteins through type-I mechanism. Photochem Photobiol. 2009;85:185194.
  • 49
    Wan XH, Lee EH, Koh HJ, et al. Enhanced expression of transglutaminase 2 in anterior polar cataracts and its induction by TGF-β in vitro. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:12931298.
  • 50
    Srivastava SK, Ansari NH. Prevention of sugar-induced cataractogenesis in rats by butylated hydroxytoluene. Diabetes. 1988;37:15051508.
  • 51
    Shang F, Taylor A. Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and cellular responses to oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51:516.
  • 52
    Shang F, Gong X, Palmer HJ, et al. Age-related decline in ubiquitin conjugation in response to oxidative stress in the lens. Exp Eye Res. 1997;64:2130.
  • 53
    Shang F, Taylor A. Oxidative stress and recovery from oxidative stress are associated with altered ubiquitin conjugating and proteolytic activities in bovine lens epithelial cells. Biochem J. 1995;307:297303.
  • 54
    Jahngen-Hodge J, Obin MS, Gong X, et al. Regulation of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes by glutathione following oxidative stress. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:2821828226.
  • 55
    Cuervo AM, Dice JF. How do intracellular proteolytic systems change with age? Front Biosci. 1998;3:d25d43.
  • 56
    Shang F, Taylor A. Roles for the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in protein quality control and signaling in the retina: implications in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Mol Aspects Med. 2012;33:446466.
  • 57
    Taylor A, Jacques PF, Nadler D, et al. Relationship in humans between ascorbic acid consumption and levels of total and reduced ascorbic acid in lens, aqueous humor, and plasma. Curr Eye Res. 1991;10:751759.
  • 58
    Berger J, Shepard D, Morrow F, et al. Relationship between dietary intake and tissue levels of reduced and total vitamin C in the nonscorbutic guinea pig. J Nutr. 1989;119:734740.
  • 59
    Pollard J, Wild CP, White KL, et al. Comparison of plasma biomarkers with dietary assessment methods for fruit and vegetable intake. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57:988998.
  • 60
    Tarwadi KV, Chiplonkar SA, Agte V. Dietary and nutritional biomarkers of lens degeneration, oxidative stress and micronutrient inadequacies in Indian cataract patients. Clin Nutr. 2008;27:464472.
  • 61
    Dherani M, Murthy GV, Gupta SK, et al. Blood levels of vitamin C, carotenoids and retinol are inversely associated with cataract in a North Indian population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:33283335.
  • 62
    Ravindran RD, Vashist P, Gupta SK, et al. Inverse association of vitamin C with cataract in older people in India. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1958.e21965. e2.
  • 63
    Taylor A, Jacques PF, Chylack LT Jr, et al. Long-term intake of vitamins and carotenoids and odds of early age-related cortical and posterior subcapsular lens opacities. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:540549.
  • 64
    Christen WG, Liu S, Glynn RJ, et al. Dietary carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and risk of cataract in women: a prospective study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:102109.
  • 65
    Simon JA, Hudes ES. Serum ascorbic acid and other correlates of self-reported cataract among older Americans. J Clin Epidemiol. 1999;52:12071211.
  • 66
    Yoshida M, Takashima Y, Inoue M, et al. Prospective study showing that dietary vitamin C reduced the risk of age-related cataracts in a middle-aged Japanese population. Eur J Nutr. 2007;46:118124.
  • 67
    Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Sesso HD, et al. Age-related cataract in a randomized trial of vitamins E and C in men. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:13971405.
  • 68
    Rautiainen S, Lindblad BE, Morgenstern R, et al. Vitamin C supplements and the risk of age-related cataract: a population-based prospective cohort study in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:487493.
  • 69
    Galli F, Azzi A. Present trends in vitamin E research. Biofactors. 2010;36:3342.
  • 70
    Mares JA, Voland R, Adler R, et al. Healthy diets and the subsequent prevalence of nuclear cataract in women. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:738749.
  • 71
    Tan AG, Mitchell P, Flood VM, et al. Antioxidant nutrient intake and the long-term incidence of age-related cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:18991905.
  • 72
    McNeil JJ, Robman LD, Tikellis G, et al. Vitamin E supplementation and cataract: randomized controlled trial. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:7584.
  • 73
    Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Chew EY, et al. Vitamin E and age-related cataract in a randomized trial of women. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:822.e1829.e1.
  • 74
    Jacques P, Taylor A, Moeller S, et al. Long-term nutrient intake and five-year change in nuclear lens opacities. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:517526.
  • 75
    Nourmohammadi I, Modarress M, Khanaki K, et al. Association of serum α-tocopherol, retinol and ascorbic acid with the risk of cataract development. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52:296298.
  • 76
    Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, et al. Serum status of carotenoids and tocopherols in patients with age-related cataracts: a case-control study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2002;6:6668.
  • 77
    Mosad SM, Ghanem AA, El-Fallal HM, et al. Lens cadmium, lead, and serum vitamins C, E, and beta carotene in cataractous smoking patients. Curr Eye Res. 2010;35:2330.
  • 78
    Schalch W, Dayhaw-Barker P, Barker FM II. The carotenoids of the human retina. In: Taylor A , ed. Nutritional and Environmental Influences on the Eye. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1999:215250.
  • 79
    Donaldson MS. A carotenoid health index based on plasma carotenoids and health outcomes. Nutrients. 2011;3:10031022.
  • 80
    Karppi J, Laukkanen JA, Kurl S. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin and the risk of age-related nuclear cataract among the elderly Finnish population. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:148154.
  • 81
    Moeller S, Voland R, Tinker L, et al. Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:354364.
  • 82
    Rodriguez-Rodriguez E, Ortega RM, Lopez-Sobaler AM, et al. The relationship between antioxidant nutrient intake and cataracts in older people. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2006;76:359366.
  • 83
    Berendschot TT, Broekmans WM, Klopping-Ketelaars IA, et al. Lens aging in relation to nutritional determinants and possible risk factors for age-related cataract. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:17321737.
  • 84
    Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, et al. Lutein, but not α-tocopherol, supplementation improves visual function in patients with age-related cataracts: a 2-y double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Nutrition. 2003;19:2124.
  • 85
    Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS) Research Group, Chew EW, SanGiovanni JP, et al.. Lutein/zeaxanthin for the treatment of age-related cataract: AREDS2 randomized trial report no. 4. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131:843850.
  • 86
    Chasan-Taber L, Willett WC, Seddon JM, et al. A prospective study of carotenoid and vitamin A intakes and risk of cataract extraction in US women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:509516.
  • 87
    Klein BE, Knudtson MD, Lee KE, et al. Supplements and age-related eye conditions: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:12031208.
  • 88
    Appleby PN, Allen NE, Key TJ. Diet, vegetarianism, and cataract risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;93:11281135.
  • 89
    Chen KJ, Pan WH, Huang CJ, et al. Association between folate status, diabetes, antihypertensive medication and age-related cataracts in elderly Taiwanese. J Nutr Health Aging. 2011;15:304310.
  • 90
    Jacques PF, Chylack LT Jr. Epidemiologic evidence of a role for the antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids in cataract prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(Suppl 1):S352S355.
  • 91
    Klein R, Knudtson MD, Cruickshanks KJ, et al. Further observations on the association between smoking and the long-term incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:115121.
  • 92
    Clinical Trial of Nutrional Supplements and Age-Related Cataract Study Group, Maraini G, Sperduto RD, Ferris F, et al. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial of multivitamin supplementation for age-related lens opacities. Clinical Trial of Nutritional Supplements and Age-Related Cataract report no. 3. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:599.e1607.e1.
  • 93
    Milton RC, Sperduto RD, Clemons TE, et al. Centrum use and progression of age-related cataract in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study: a propensity score approach. AREDS report no. 21. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:12641270.
  • 94
    Kanthan GL, Mitchell P, Burlutsky G, et al. Fasting blood glucose levels and the long-term incidence and progression of cataract – the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Acta Ophthalmol. 2011;89:e434e438.
  • 95
    Gul A, Rahman MA, Hasnain SN. Role of fructose concentration on cataractogenesis in senile diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;247:809814.
  • 96
    Noble D, Mathur R, Dent T, et al. Risk models and scores for type 2 diabetes: systematic review. BMJ. 2011;343:d7163.
  • 97
    Chiu CJ, Taylor A. Dietary hyperglycemia, glycemic index and metabolic retinal diseases. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2011;30:1853.
  • 98
    Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Smith W. Diet and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:450456.
  • 99
    Townend BS, Townend ME, Flood V, et al. Dietary macronutrient intake and five-year incident cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:932939.
  • 100
    Semba RD, Fink JC, Sun K, et al. Carboxymethyl-lysine, an advanced glycation end product, and decline of renal function in older community-dwelling adults. Eur J Nutr. 2009;48:3844.
  • 101
    Ferland A, Brassard P, Lemieux S, et al. Impact of high-fat/low-carbohydrate, high-, low-glycaemic index or low-caloric meals on glucose regulation during aerobic exercise in type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2009;26:589595.
  • 102
    McKeown NM, Meigs JB, Liu S, et al. Dietary carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Framingham Offspring cohort. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009;28:150158.
  • 103
    Riegersperger M, Sunder-Plassmann G. How to prevent progression to end stage renal disease. J Ren Care. 2007;33:105107.
  • 104
    Tan J, Wang JJ, Flood V, et al. Carbohydrate nutrition, glycemic index, and the 10-y incidence of cataract. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:15021508.
  • 105
    Ludwig DS. The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA. 2002;287:24142423.
  • 106
    Schaumberg DA, Liu S, Seddon JM, et al. Dietary glycemic load and risk of age-related cataract. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:489495.
  • 107
    Lu M, Taylor A, Chylack LT Jr, et al. Dietary fat intake and early age-related lens opacities. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:773779.
  • 108
    Lu M, Cho E, Taylor A, et al. Prospective study of dietary fat and risk of cataract extraction among US women. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;161:948959.