Global climate change and the evolutionary ecology of ecosystem functioning
Article first published online: 15 JUL 2013
© 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume 1297, Climate Change and Species Interactions: Ways Forward pages 61–72, September 2013
How to Cite
Schmitz, O. J. (2013), Global climate change and the evolutionary ecology of ecosystem functioning. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1297: 61–72. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12181
- Issue published online: 18 SEP 2013
- Article first published online: 15 JUL 2013
- animal control over carbon cycling;
- elemental stoichiometry;
- environmental stress;
- food chains;
- physiological plasticity
Environmental warming due to global climate change is an important stressor that stands to alter organismal physiology and, ultimately, carbon cycling in ecosystems. Yet the theoretical framework for predicting warming effects on whole-ecosystem carbon balance by way of changes in organismal physiology remains rudimentary. This is because ecosystem science has yet to embrace principles of evolutionary ecology that offer the means to explain how environmental stress on organisms mediates ecosystem carbon dynamics. Here, using selected case studies and a theoretical model, I sketch out one framework that shows how increases in animal metabolic rates in response to thermal stress lead to phenotypically plastic shifts in animal elemental demand, from nitrogen-rich proteins that support production to carbon-rich soluble carbohydrates that support elevated energy demands. I further show how such a switch in resource selection alters the fate of carbon between atmospheric versus animal, plant, and soil pools. The framework shows that animals, despite having relatively low biomass representation in ecosystems, can nonetheless have disproportionately larger effects on carbon cycling in ecosystems whose effects are exacerbated by environmental stressors like climate warming.