Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Cover image for Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

December 2004

Volume 1032 Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects

Pages xi–xvi, 1–328

  1. Frontmatter

    1. Top of page
    2. Frontmatter
    3. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part I. Novel Paradigms for Considering Stress-Hormone Response
    4. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part II. Understanding the Effects of Genes on Stress and Stress on Gene Expression over the Course of Development
    5. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part III. How Biologic Findings on Stress Inform PTSD and Related Clinical Syndromes
    6. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IV. Effects of Stress on Cognition
    7. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part V. Systemic Effects of Stress
    8. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VI. Developmental Effects of Stress in Humans and Other Primates
    9. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VII. Neuroendocrine Effects of Stress in Humans and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    10. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VIII. Effects of Stress in Depression and Schizophrenia
    11. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IX. Effects of Stress and Stress Hormones: Animal Studies
    1. Introduction (pages xi–xvi)

      RACHEL YEHUDA and BRUCE MCEWEN

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.053

  2. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part I. Novel Paradigms for Considering Stress-Hormone Response

    1. Top of page
    2. Frontmatter
    3. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part I. Novel Paradigms for Considering Stress-Hormone Response
    4. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part II. Understanding the Effects of Genes on Stress and Stress on Gene Expression over the Course of Development
    5. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part III. How Biologic Findings on Stress Inform PTSD and Related Clinical Syndromes
    6. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IV. Effects of Stress on Cognition
    7. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part V. Systemic Effects of Stress
    8. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VI. Developmental Effects of Stress in Humans and Other Primates
    9. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VII. Neuroendocrine Effects of Stress in Humans and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    10. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VIII. Effects of Stress in Depression and Schizophrenia
    11. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IX. Effects of Stress and Stress Hormones: Animal Studies
    1. Allostatic Load, Perceived Stress, and Health: A Prospective Study in Two Age Groups (pages 8–13)

      J HELLHAMMER, W SCHLOTZ, A A STONE, K M PIRKE and D HELLHAMMER

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.002

  3. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part II. Understanding the Effects of Genes on Stress and Stress on Gene Expression over the Course of Development

    1. Top of page
    2. Frontmatter
    3. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part I. Novel Paradigms for Considering Stress-Hormone Response
    4. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part II. Understanding the Effects of Genes on Stress and Stress on Gene Expression over the Course of Development
    5. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part III. How Biologic Findings on Stress Inform PTSD and Related Clinical Syndromes
    6. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IV. Effects of Stress on Cognition
    7. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part V. Systemic Effects of Stress
    8. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VI. Developmental Effects of Stress in Humans and Other Primates
    9. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VII. Neuroendocrine Effects of Stress in Humans and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    10. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VIII. Effects of Stress in Depression and Schizophrenia
    11. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IX. Effects of Stress and Stress Hormones: Animal Studies
    1. A Psychobiological Perspective on Genetic Determinants of Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity (pages 52–62)

      STEFAN WÜST, ILONA S. FEDERENKO, ELISABETH F.C. van ROSSUM, JAN W. KOPER, ROBERT KUMSTA, SONJA ENTRINGER and DIRK H. HELLHAMMER

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.005

    2. Glucocorticoid Programming (pages 63–84)

      JONATHAN R. SECKL and MICHAEL J. MEANEY

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.006

    3. Maternal Programming of Individual Differences in Defensive Responses in the Rat (pages 85–103)

      TIE-YUAN ZHANG, CARINE PARENT, IAN WEAVER and MICHAEL J. MEANEY

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.007

    4. Trauma, Genes, and the Neurobiology of Personality Disorders (pages 104–116)

      MARIANNE GOODMAN, ANTONIA NEW and LARRY SIEVER

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.008

    5. Differential Effects of Stress on Gene Transcription Factors in Catecholaminergic Systems (pages 130–140)

      ESTHER L. SABBAN, MELEIK A. HEBERT, XIAOPING LIU, BISTRA NANKOVA and LIDIA SEROVA

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.010

  4. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part III. How Biologic Findings on Stress Inform PTSD and Related Clinical Syndromes

    1. Top of page
    2. Frontmatter
    3. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part I. Novel Paradigms for Considering Stress-Hormone Response
    4. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part II. Understanding the Effects of Genes on Stress and Stress on Gene Expression over the Course of Development
    5. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part III. How Biologic Findings on Stress Inform PTSD and Related Clinical Syndromes
    6. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IV. Effects of Stress on Cognition
    7. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part V. Systemic Effects of Stress
    8. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VI. Developmental Effects of Stress in Humans and Other Primates
    9. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VII. Neuroendocrine Effects of Stress in Humans and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    10. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VIII. Effects of Stress in Depression and Schizophrenia
    11. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IX. Effects of Stress and Stress Hormones: Animal Studies
    1. Can Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Be Prevented with Glucocorticoids? (pages 158–166)

      GUSTAV SCHELLING, BENNO ROOZENDAAL and DOMINIQUE J.-F. de QUERVAIN

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.013

  5. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IV. Effects of Stress on Cognition

    1. Top of page
    2. Frontmatter
    3. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part I. Novel Paradigms for Considering Stress-Hormone Response
    4. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part II. Understanding the Effects of Genes on Stress and Stress on Gene Expression over the Course of Development
    5. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part III. How Biologic Findings on Stress Inform PTSD and Related Clinical Syndromes
    6. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IV. Effects of Stress on Cognition
    7. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part V. Systemic Effects of Stress
    8. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VI. Developmental Effects of Stress in Humans and Other Primates
    9. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VII. Neuroendocrine Effects of Stress in Humans and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    10. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VIII. Effects of Stress in Depression and Schizophrenia
    11. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IX. Effects of Stress and Stress Hormones: Animal Studies
    1. Basolateral Amygdala Interacts with Other Brain Regions in Regulating Glucocorticoid Effects on Different Memory Functions (pages 179–182)

      SHEILA V. NATHAN, QYANA K. GRIFFITH, JAYME R. MCREYNOLDS, EMILY L. HAHN and BENNO ROOZENDAAL

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.015

    2. Neurobiology of Memory and Dissociation in Trauma Survivors (pages 183–185)

      DOUGLAS DELAHANTY, DORIE GLOVER and JULIA GOLIER

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.016

    3. The “Steroid Dementia Syndrome”: An Unrecognized Complication of Glucocorticoid Treatment (pages 191–194)

      OWEN M. WOLKOWITZ, SONIA J. LUPIEN, ERIN BIGLER, R BRONSON LEVIN and JONATHAN CANICK

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.018

    4. Cortisol and Memory Retrieval in Humans: Influence of Emotional Valence (pages 195–197)

      O T. WOLF, S KUHLMANN, C BUSS, D H. HELLHAMMER and C KIRSCHBAUM

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.019

  6. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part V. Systemic Effects of Stress

    1. Top of page
    2. Frontmatter
    3. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part I. Novel Paradigms for Considering Stress-Hormone Response
    4. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part II. Understanding the Effects of Genes on Stress and Stress on Gene Expression over the Course of Development
    5. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part III. How Biologic Findings on Stress Inform PTSD and Related Clinical Syndromes
    6. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IV. Effects of Stress on Cognition
    7. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part V. Systemic Effects of Stress
    8. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VI. Developmental Effects of Stress in Humans and Other Primates
    9. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VII. Neuroendocrine Effects of Stress in Humans and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    10. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VIII. Effects of Stress in Depression and Schizophrenia
    11. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IX. Effects of Stress and Stress Hormones: Animal Studies
    1. Are Stress Eaters at Risk for the Metabolic Syndrome? (pages 208–210)

      ELISSA EPEL, SHERLYN JIMENEZ, KELLY BROWNELL, LAURA STROUD, CATHERINE STONEY and RAY NIAURA

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.022

    2. Lowering Cortisol and CVD Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study Using the Transcendental Meditation Program (pages 211–215)

      KENNETH G. WALTON, JEREMY Z. FIELDS, DEBRA K. LEVITSKY, DWIGHT A. HARRIS, NIRMAL D. PUGH and ROBERT H. SCHNEIDER

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.023

    3. Neuroactive Steroids in Responders and Nonresponders to Sleep Deprivation (pages 216–223)

      CORNELIUS SCHÜLE, FLAVIA Di MICHELE, THOMAS BAGHAI, ELENA ROMEO, GIORGIO BERNARDI, PETER ZWANZGER, FRANK PADBERG, AUGUSTO PASINI and RAINER RUPPRECHT

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.024

    4. The Neurobiology of Trust (pages 224–227)

      PAUL J. ZAK, ROBERT KURZBAN and WILLIAM T. MATZNER

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.025

  7. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VI. Developmental Effects of Stress in Humans and Other Primates

    1. Top of page
    2. Frontmatter
    3. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part I. Novel Paradigms for Considering Stress-Hormone Response
    4. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part II. Understanding the Effects of Genes on Stress and Stress on Gene Expression over the Course of Development
    5. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part III. How Biologic Findings on Stress Inform PTSD and Related Clinical Syndromes
    6. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IV. Effects of Stress on Cognition
    7. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part V. Systemic Effects of Stress
    8. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VI. Developmental Effects of Stress in Humans and Other Primates
    9. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VII. Neuroendocrine Effects of Stress in Humans and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    10. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VIII. Effects of Stress in Depression and Schizophrenia
    11. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IX. Effects of Stress and Stress Hormones: Animal Studies
    1. Influence of Stress during Pregnancy on HPA Activity and Neonatal Behavior (pages 228–230)

      MARGARETE RIEGER, KARL-MARTIN PIRKE, ANGELIKA BUSKE-KIRSCHBAUM, HARALD WURMSER, MECHTHILD PAPOUŠEK and DIRK H. HELLHAMMER

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.026

    2. Effects of Hormones and Sex Chromosomes on Stress-Influenced Regions of the Developing Pediatric Brain (pages 231–233)

      A BLYTHE ROSE, DEBORAH P. MERKE, LIV S. CLASEN, MICHAEL A. ROSENTHAL, GREGORY L. WALLACE, A CATHERINE VAITUZIS, JEREMY D. FIELDS and JAY N. GIEDD

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.027

    3. Evidence for Altered Monoamine Activity and Emotional and Cognitive Disturbance in Marmoset Monkeys Exposed to Early Life Stress (pages 245–249)

      CHRISTOPHER R. PRYCE, ANDREA DETTLING, MARIANNE SPENGLER, CORINNE SPAETE and JORAM FELDON

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.030

  8. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VII. Neuroendocrine Effects of Stress in Humans and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    1. Top of page
    2. Frontmatter
    3. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part I. Novel Paradigms for Considering Stress-Hormone Response
    4. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part II. Understanding the Effects of Genes on Stress and Stress on Gene Expression over the Course of Development
    5. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part III. How Biologic Findings on Stress Inform PTSD and Related Clinical Syndromes
    6. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IV. Effects of Stress on Cognition
    7. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part V. Systemic Effects of Stress
    8. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VI. Developmental Effects of Stress in Humans and Other Primates
    9. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VII. Neuroendocrine Effects of Stress in Humans and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    10. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VIII. Effects of Stress in Depression and Schizophrenia
    11. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IX. Effects of Stress and Stress Hormones: Animal Studies
    1. Evaluating Performance of Law Enforcement Personnel during a Stressful Training Scenario (pages 250–253)

      JAMES L. MEYERHOFF, WILLIAM NORRIS, GEORGE A. SAVIOLAKIS, TERRY WOLLERT, BOB BURGE, VALERIE ATKINS and CHARLES SPIELBERGER

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.031

    2. Neural Circuits Underlying Emotional Distress in Humans (pages 254–257)

      RAJITA SINHA, CHERYL LACADIE, PAWEL SKUDLARSKI and BRUCE E. WEXLER

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.032

    3. Psychosocial Stress-Induced Activation of Salivary Alpha-Amylase: An Indicator of Sympathetic Activity? (pages 258–263)

      NICOLAS ROHLEDER, URS M. NATER, JUTTA M. WOLF, ULRIKE EHLERT and CLEMENS KIRSCHBAUM

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.033

    4. Applying a Nonlinear Regression Model to Characterize Cortisol Responses to Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Challenge (pages 264–266)

      LAURA R. STROUD, GEORGE D. PAPANDONATOS, DOUGLAS E. WILLIAMSON and RONALD E. DAHL

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.034

    5. Increased Adrenocorticotropin Suppression after Dexamethasone Administration in Sexually Abused Adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (pages 273–275)

      FABRICE DUVAL, MARC-ANTOINE CROCQ, MARIE-SABINE GUILLON, MARIE-CLAUDE MOKRANI, JOSÉ MONREAL, PAUL BAILEY and JEAN-PAUL MACHER

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.036

  9. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VIII. Effects of Stress in Depression and Schizophrenia

    1. Top of page
    2. Frontmatter
    3. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part I. Novel Paradigms for Considering Stress-Hormone Response
    4. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part II. Understanding the Effects of Genes on Stress and Stress on Gene Expression over the Course of Development
    5. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part III. How Biologic Findings on Stress Inform PTSD and Related Clinical Syndromes
    6. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IV. Effects of Stress on Cognition
    7. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part V. Systemic Effects of Stress
    8. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VI. Developmental Effects of Stress in Humans and Other Primates
    9. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VII. Neuroendocrine Effects of Stress in Humans and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    10. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VIII. Effects of Stress in Depression and Schizophrenia
    11. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IX. Effects of Stress and Stress Hormones: Animal Studies
    1. Mirtazapine Acutely Inhibits Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Depressed Patients (pages 279–282)

      GREGOR LAAKMANN, JÜRGEN HENNIG, THOMAS BAGHAI and CORNELIUS SCHÜLE

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.038

    2. Does Substitution of T4 with T3 Plus T4 for T4 Replacement Improve Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Hypothyroidism? (pages 287–288)

      RUSSELL T. JOFFE, ANNA M. SAWKA, MICHAEL J. MARRIOTT, GLENDA M. MACQUEEN and HERTZL C. GERNSTEIN

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.040

    3. Longitudinal Effect of Olanzapine on Fasting Serum Lipids: A Randomized, Prospective, 4-Month Study (pages 295–296)

      BRUCE J. KINON, HONG LIU-SEIFERT, JONNA AHL, SAEEDUDDIN AHMED and ROBERT W. BAKER

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.043

  10. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IX. Effects of Stress and Stress Hormones: Animal Studies

    1. Top of page
    2. Frontmatter
    3. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part I. Novel Paradigms for Considering Stress-Hormone Response
    4. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part II. Understanding the Effects of Genes on Stress and Stress on Gene Expression over the Course of Development
    5. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part III. How Biologic Findings on Stress Inform PTSD and Related Clinical Syndromes
    6. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IV. Effects of Stress on Cognition
    7. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part V. Systemic Effects of Stress
    8. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VI. Developmental Effects of Stress in Humans and Other Primates
    9. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VII. Neuroendocrine Effects of Stress in Humans and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    10. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part VIII. Effects of Stress in Depression and Schizophrenia
    11. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects: Part IX. Effects of Stress and Stress Hormones: Animal Studies
    1. Accelerated Barnes Maze Test in Mice for Assessment of Stress Effects on Memory (pages 304–307)

      M Y. DAWOOD, L A. LUMLEY, C L. ROBISON, G A. SAVIOLAKIS and J L. MEYERHOFF

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.047

    2. Preliminary Evidence of Altered Sensitivity to Benzodiazepines as a Function of Maternal Care in the Rat (pages 320–323)

      EVA FRIES, NATHALIE MORAGUES, CHRISTIAN CALDJI, DIRK H. HELLHAMMER and MICHAEL J. MEANEY

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.051

    3. A CRH1 Antagonist into the Amygdala of Mice Prevents Defeat-Induced Defensive Behavior (pages 324–328)

      C L. ROBISON, J L. MEYERHOFF, G A. SAVIOLAKIS, W K. CHEN, K C. RICE and L A. LUMLEY

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1196/annals.1314.052

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