Etiology and Pathophysiology
Chronobiology, endocrinology, and energy- and food-reward homeostasis
Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013
© 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity
Volume 14, Issue 5, pages 405–416, May 2013
How to Cite
Gonnissen, H. K. J., Hulshof, T. and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. (2013), Chronobiology, endocrinology, and energy- and food-reward homeostasis. Obesity Reviews, 14: 405–416. doi: 10.1111/obr.12019
- Issue published online: 17 APR 2013
- Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 7 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 7 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 8 OCT 2012
- Kellogg Europe
- Circadian alignment;
- insulin sensitivity;
Energy- and food-reward homeostasis is the essential component for maintaining energy balance and its disruption may lead to metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes. Circadian alignment, quality sleep and sleep architecture in relation to energy- and food-reward homeostasis are crucial. A reduced sleep duration, quality sleep and rapid-eye movement sleep affect substrate oxidation, leptin and ghrelin concentrations, sleeping metabolic rate, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity, and gut-peptide concentrations, enhancing a positive energy balance. Circadian misalignment affects sleep architecture and the glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, leptin concentrations and HPA-axis activity. Mood disorders such as depression occur; reduced dopaminergic neuronal signaling shows decreased food reward.
A good sleep hygiene, together with circadian alignment of food intake, a regular meal frequency, and attention for protein intake or diets, contributes in curing sleep abnormalities and overweight/obesity features by preventing overeating; normalizing substrate oxidation, stress, insulin and glucose metabolism including HOMA-IR index, and leptin, GLP-1 concentrations, lipid metabolism, appetite, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation; and normalizing food reward.
Synchrony between circadian and metabolic processes including meal patterns plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance and body-weight control.
Additive effects of circadian alignment including meal patterns, sleep restoration, and protein diets in the treatment of overweight and obesity are suggested.