Dynamics of the Chinese diet and the role of urbanicity, 1991–2011
Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2013
© 2014 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Special Issue: Understanding the Transition in Diet, Activity, Body Composition and Nutrition-related Noncommunicable Diseases in China: the China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991-2011. Guest Editor: Barry M. Popkin. The International Association for the Study of Obesity and Wiley have published this supplement without any financial support.
Volume 15, Issue Supplement S1, pages 16–26, January 2014
How to Cite
Zhai, F. Y., Du, S. F., Wang, Z. H., Zhang, J. G., Du, W. W. and Popkin, B. M. (2014), Dynamics of the Chinese diet and the role of urbanicity, 1991–2011. Obesity Reviews, 15: 16–26. doi: 10.1111/obr.12124
- Issue online: 17 DEC 2013
- Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 20 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Received: 19 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 19 SEP 2013
- National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety
- China Center for Disease Control and Prevention
- Carolina Population Center. Grant Number: 5 R24 HD050924
- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
- NIH. Grant Numbers: R01-HD30880, DK056350, R24 HD050924, R01-HD38700
- Fogarty International Center, NIH
- diet trends;
- food system
China's food consumption patterns and eating and cooking behaviours changed dramatically between 1991 and 2011. Macronutrient composition has shifted towards fats, and protein and sodium intakes remain high and potassium intake low. The rapid decline in intake of coarse grains and, later, of refined grains and increases in intake of edible oils and animal-source foods accompanied by major eating and cooking behaviour shifts are leading to what might be characterized as an unhealthy Western type of diet, often based on traditional recipes with major additions and changes. The most popular animal-source food is pork, and consumption of poultry and eggs is increasing. The changes in cooking and eating styles include a decrease in the proportion of food steamed, baked, or boiled, and an increase in snacking and eating away from home. Prior to the last decade, there was essentially no snacking in China except for hot water or green tea. Most recently, the intake of foods high in added sugar has increased. The dietary shifts are affected greatly by the country's urbanization. The future, as exemplified by the diet of the three mega cities, promises major growth in consumption of processed foods and beverages.