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Keywords:

  • toll-like receptors;
  • CD14 antigen;
  • saliva;
  • biological markers;
  • diagnosis;
  • dental scaling;
  • root planing;
  • chronic periodontitis

Objectives

Soluble toll-like receptor-2 (sTLR-2) and cytokines in saliva were assessed as clinical markers for chronic periodontitis in a longitudinal study.

Materials and Methods

Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from 20 periodontally healthy individuals and 20 patients with chronic periodontitis at diagnosis and at 1 and 6 weeks following scaling and root planing (SRP). Biomarkers including the cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17), sTLR-2, and sCD14 in saliva were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mann–Whitney U-test and Student's t-test were used to determine the significance between healthy and chronic periodontitis groups and that between pre- and post-SRP samples, respectively.

Results

Salivary sTLR-2, IL-17, and IL-10 levels were significantly lower and those of sCD14, IL-6, and IL-4 were significantly higher in patients with chronic periodontitis as compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, sTLR-2 and IL-4 in saliva reached levels comparable to those of healthy individuals at 6-week re-evaluation visit, implicating a correlation of the two markers with the disease process.

Conclusions

Our data suggest that salivary sTLR-2 is a potential prognostic or maintenance marker for chronic periodontitis. The observed variability of salivary cytokines is consistent with the role of these cytokines in the progression of chronic periodontitis.