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Keywords:

  • blur adaptation;
  • myopia;
  • optical defocus;
  • visual acuity

Abstract

Purpose/Background

This study examined the effect of myopic defocus on visual acuity (VA) over time, with attention being paid to the first point at which blur adaptation had a significant and measurable effect on defocused VA. Visual acuity was sampled at a higher rate than previous studies in order to assess the time course of blur adaptation processes in myopic and emmetropic observers.

Methods

Participants were 24 normally-sighted observers (12 emmetropes and 12 myopes, median age: 22.5 years). All ametropic participants wore their full refractive correction throughout the experiment. 1 D and 3 D of myopic defocus were introduced in two separate, randomised sessions. Visual acuity was measured using Test Chart 2000 at 2 min intervals over a 30 min session whilst looking through defocus lenses. Recovery clear VA was also measured every 2 min for a further 20 min.

Results

Defocused VA was found to improve significantly within 4 min after the introduction of defocus for both 1 D (< 0.0001) and 3 D conditions (P < 0.0001). The improvements reached a plateau shortly after, with no significant further improvements in defocused VA after 6 min. There were no significant differences found in the temporal blur adaptation profiles between emmetropes and myopes (P = 0.267). Data were fitted with an exponential decay function; the lowest R2 value for this fit was 0.95.

Conclusions

Blur adaptation has a clinically significant and measurable effect on VA within 4 min of exposure to defocus. This finding indicates that the visual system instigates the neural compensatory mechanisms shortly after the appearance of defocus. Our results relate particularly to real-life vision of uncorrected myopes or myopes who remove their correction for part of the day.