Implanted cardiac devices, including pacemakers, defibrillators, and resynchronization devices, are known to develop thrombus on their intravascular leads. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) occurs in approximately one-quarter of the adult population. It is unclear whether paradoxical cardioembolism and clinically relevant stroke occur in patients with implanted cardiac leads and PFO. We present a case series of four patients with cardioembolic stroke, presumed to arise from intravascular cardiac leads and associated PFO that required device closure of the PFO.
(PACE 2013; 36:50–54)