Pacing has been proposed as a treatment for patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), but there are few studies with long-term follow-up. We evaluated the long-term effects of dual-chamber pacing therapy for patients with HOCM, and to identify the most prognosis-specific factors for predicting outcome in such treating methods.
A total of 37 HOCM patients implanted with dual-chamber pacemakers were enrolled consecutively and followed-up. Thirty-seven cases were followed for 1 year, 26 cases for 2 years, 10 cases for 3 years, and eight cases for 4 years. At each annual point of follow-up after pacemaker implantation, the pacing frequency, pacing threshold, impedance, atrioventricular delay, and cumulative percentage of atrial and ventricular pacing were tested, respectively. In addition, left atrial dimension (LAD), left ventricular end diastolic dimension (LVEDd), left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPW), interventricular septum thickness (IVS), left ventricular outflow tract dimension (LVOTd), peak velocity of left ventricular outflow tract (VLVOT), left ventricular outflow tract pressure gradient (LVOTPG), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) were measured. Mitral valve systolic anterior motion (SAM) was also observed. Pacing parameters and echocardiography indexes before and after pacemaker implantation were dynamically compared.
Pacing frequency and atrioventricular delay were adjusted to 60–70 beats per minute and 90–180 ms, respectively, in order to ensure the ratio of ventricular pacing was more than 98%. Pacing threshold and pacing impedance were kept in normal ranges. The differences of various pacing parameters were of no statistical significance within the 4 years of follow-up (P > 0.05). Compared with prior to pacing, it was observed that the IVS, VLVOT, and LVOTPG declined significantly (P < 0.01), the LVOTd widened significantly (P < 0.01), and the SAM phenomenon improved obviously (P < 0.01) at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after pacemaker implantation. Additionally, the changes in LAD, LVEDd, LVPW, LVEF, and PASP were statistically insignificant (P > 0.05).
The cardiac structural reconstruction in patients with HOCM can be chronically improved by dual-chamber pacing therapy. The IVS, LVOTd, VLVOT, and LVOTPG can be used as sensitive and specific factors in evaluating the long-term effects of dual-chamber pacing therapy for HOCM.
(PACE 2013; 36:86–93)