• biomarkers;
  • crioablation;
  • RF ablation;
  • flutter;
  • necrosis;
  • myocardial remodeling


Biomarkers of necrosis and inflammation have been found raised after radiofrequency ablation (RF). There is scarce information on biomarkers’ behavior after cryoablation. Our aim was to study biomarkers of necrosis, inflammation, and interstitial remodeling after two different approaches: RF versus cryoablation.


We studied 22 consecutive patients with atrial flutter who underwent RF (10) or cryoablation (12). All patients underwent electrophysiological study and subsequent ablation. Peripheral samples were collected before the procedure, immediately after, the following day, 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months after ablation. Samples were assayed for biomarkers of inflammation (high sensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) and tissue remodeling (C-propeptide of type I procollagen [CICP], matrix metalloproteinase 2 [MMP-2], matrix metalloproteinase 9 [MMP-9], and metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 [TIMP-1]). We also determined biomarkers of tissue necrosis (creatine kinase [CK], its MB isoenzyme, cardiac troponin I [TnI], and troponin T (TnT)] in samples obtained immediately after ablation, 6 hours postablation, and 12 hours postablation.


Bidirectional isthmus block was achieved in all patients. We found significantly higher levels of CK, CK-MB, and TnI after cryoablation compared to RF ablation for all timing samples. These necrosis biomarkers showed significant differences depending on the time (all P < 0.001), and the interaction between the time and the used ablation approach (P = 0.005, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). For patients who undergoing RF ablation, MMP-2 showed the greatest changes depending on the interaction between time and number of applications (P = 0.041), whereas for patients who undergoing cryoablation, CK was the most relevant biomarker depending on the interaction between time and number of applications (P = 0.006).


We show higher levels of necrosis and myocardial injury biomarker after cryoablation versus RF. However, we found higher remodeling processes after RF. Our data support previous publications showing different lesion formation in cryoablation and RF.

(PACE 2013; 36:31–36)