Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation and Requirements of Pacing Over Time


  • Conflicts of interest: The authors have no potential conflicts of interest and no financial support.

Address for reprints: Eulália Pereira, M.D., Rua Conceição Fernandes, 4434–502 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal. Fax: 351 227830209; e-mail:



A permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation is common after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We sought to evaluate requirements of pacing and incidence of pacemaker dependency during the first year after TAVI.


From August 2007 until May 2011, 65 patients underwent TAVI with self-expandable prosthesis. Five patients paced at baseline and two procedure-related deaths were excluded. Evaluation of ventricular pacing percentage (VP%) and look for spontaneous rhythm were performed at 3, 6, and 12 months.


PPM implantation was required in 19/58 patients (33%). Mean VP% decreased between assessments (59% at 3 months, 48% at 6 months, 50% at 12 months), but overall VP% at 1 year was high (57% ± 43%) and most patients were paced ≥10% of time. A favorable annulus-to-aorta angle was associated with lower pacing requirements (60% of patients paced ≤10% of time vs 10% of patients paced >10% of time presented an angle ≤30⁰, P = 0.039). Pacemaker dependency was established in 27% of patients and could be predicted by the presence of porcelain aorta (odds ratio = 30, confidence interval 95% 1–638, P = 0.029). New postprocedural left bundle branch block (LBBB) had a negative impact on 1-year survival (58% vs 82% in non-LBBB group, P = 0.111). PPM implantation had no impact on 1-year survival.


One third of patients required PPM after TAVI and full recovery of advanced conduction abnormalities seems unlikely. Unfavorable aortic root orientation may hinder the deployment of the valve and contribute to the continued impairment of the conduction system. Porcelain aorta was a strong predictor of pacemaker dependency.