In the past years, a wide range of epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have produced remarkable advances in the field of respiratory allergies in childhood. By the recent investigations on epidemiological trends, risk factors, and prevention of asthma and allergic rhinitis, various exiting concepts have been challenged, and novel innovative approaches have been developed. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (PAI), with a number of highly relevant contributions between 2010 and 2012, has become an important forum in this area. The prevalence of asthma in some developed countries may have reached a plateau, while in developing countries, where the prevalence was previously low, allergic diseases are still on the increase. A wide array of risk and protective factors, including hygiene, infections, outdoor and indoor air pollution, allergen exposure, breast-feeding practices, nutrition, and obesity, play a multifaceted role in shaping the observed worldwide trends of respiratory allergies. Under the guidance of recent research, prediction and prevention strategies in the clinical practice are progressively changing, the focus moving away from avoidance of allergen exposure and toward tolerance induction.