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Food allergy and food-based therapies in neurodevelopmental disorders

Authors

  • Caroline G. M. de Theije,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    • Correspondence

      Caroline G. M. de Theije, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands

      Tel.: +31 (0) 30 253 7353

      Fax: +31 (0) 30 253 7900

      E-mail: c.g.m.detheije@uu.nl

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  • Bas M. Bavelaar,

    1. Division of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
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  • Sofia Lopes da Silva,

    1. Nutricia Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands
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  • Sijmen Mechiel Korte,

    1. Division of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    2. UMC Utrecht Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
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  • Berend Olivier,

    1. Division of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    2. UMC Utrecht Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
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  • Johan Garssen,

    1. Division of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    2. Nutricia Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands
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  • Aletta D. Kraneveld

    1. Division of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders which occur in childhood and may persist into adulthood. Although the etiology of these disorders is largely unknown, genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in the development of ASD and ADHD. Allergic immune reactions, in prenatal and postnatal phases, are examples of these environmental factors, and adverse reactions to foods are reported in these children. In this review, we address the clinical and preclinical findings of (food) allergy in ASD and ADHD and suggest possible underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, opportunities for nutritional interventions in neurodevelopmental disorders are provided.

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