Phytophthora capsici causes devastating diseases on a broad range of plant species. To better understand the interaction with its host plants, knowledge obtained from a model pathosystem can be instrumental. Here, we describe the interaction between P. capsici and Arabidopsis and the exploitation of this novel pathosystem to assign metabolic pathways involved in defence against P. capsici. Inoculation assays on Arabidopsis accessions with different P. capsici isolates revealed interaction specificity among accession-isolate combinations. In a compatible interaction, appressorium-mediated penetration was followed by the formation of invasive hyphae, haustoria and sporangia in leaves and roots. In contrast, in an incompatible interaction, P. capsici infection elicited callose deposition, accumulation of active oxygen species and cell death, resulting in early pathogen encasement in leaves. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants with defects in salicylic acid signalling, camalexin or indole glucosinolates biosynthesis pathways displayed severely compromised resistance to P. capsici. It is anticipated that this model pathosystem will facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits responsible for resistance against P. capsici.