Closing in on maximum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence using a single multiphase flash of sub-saturating intensity
Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2013
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Plant, Cell & Environment
Volume 36, Issue 10, pages 1755–1770, October 2013
How to Cite
LORIAUX, S. D., AVENSON, T. J., WELLES, J. M., MCDERMITT, D. K., ECKLES, R. D., RIENSCHE, B. and GENTY, B. (2013), Closing in on maximum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence using a single multiphase flash of sub-saturating intensity. Plant, Cell & Environment, 36: 1755–1770. doi: 10.1111/pce.12115
- Issue online: 3 SEP 2013
- Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 16 APR 2013 04:20AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 MAR 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 27 MAR 2013
- Manuscript Received: 20 DEC 2012
Figure S1. Simulated effect of Q′ on ΦAFm′ and ΦEFm′. Simulated estimates of ΦAFm′ (closed symbols) were computed using a range of steady irradiances between 5000–15 000 μmol photons m−2 s−1. Three different electron transport and qN capacities were used during simulations by varying kox and kD, respectively, according to: kox = 50 s−1; kD = 0.244 * 109 s−1 (black squares); kox = 50 s−1; kD = 5 * 109 s−1 (red circles); and kox = 200 s−1; kD = 5 * 109 s−1 (blue triangles). The corresponding estimates of ΦEFm′ (open symbols) were obtained by ramping the steady irradiances by 25% at a rate of 0.01 mol photons m−2 s−2 and performing linear regression of the resultant ΦF plotted against (Q′)−1 and extrapolation to the y-intercept. All values of ΦAFm′ and ΦEFm′ are normalized to the corresponding ΦF at infinite irradiance.
Figure S2. Simulated effect of Q′ on the variable part of ΦAFm′ and QA− (i.e. 1-q). The variable part of ΦAFm′ was calculated as ΦAFv′ = ΦAFm′ − ΦFo′. Simulated estimates of ΦAFv′ (A) and (1-q) (B) were computed using a range of steady irradiances between 5000–15000 μmol photons m−2 s−1. Three different electron transport and qN capacities were used during simulations by varying kox and kD, respectively, according to: kox = 50 s−1; kD = 0.244 * 109 s−1 (black squares); kox = 50 s−1; kD = 5 * 109 s−1 (red circles); and kox = 200 s−1; kD = 5 * 109 s−1 (blue triangles). All values of ΦAFv′ are normalized to the ΦFv′ at infinite irradiance.
Figure S3. Experimental effect of MPF protocol on estimation of NPQ. Leaves of maize (A) and sunflower (B) were exposed to a range of PPFD, as described in the legend of Fig. 11. Estimates of NPQ were calculated as ΦFm/ΦFm′ − 1 using RF-derived values of ΦAFm′ (black squares) or MPF-derived values of ΦEFm′ (red circles) (see legend of Fig. 11). Values of ΦFm used for calculation of NPQ were obtained 5 minutes after cessation of actinic illumination at the lowest PPFD. Each maize data point is the mean of 9 to 14 observations (± SD), and each sunflower data point is the mean of 7 to 9 observations (± SD). Paired comparisons of the mean NPQ between the MPF and RF methods were significant (p < 0.01) at all PPFD.
Figure S4. Relative effect of MPF protocol on fluorescence parameters. Estimates of Fm′ (black squares), ΦPSII (red circles), and NPQ (blue triangles) were obtained using RF and MPF methodologies, as described in legends of Fig. 11 and S3. The relative effect of the MPF-derived values on estimation of these fluorescence parameters in maize (A) and sunflower (B) were obtained as the ratio of the respective MPF-derived and RF-derived parameter.
Table S1. Effect of MPF on Fm′ and ΦPSII in various species and growth conditions. Using a range of species grown under various conditions, Fm′ was estimated using RFs and MPFs whose maximum intensities were ∼7000 μmol m−2 s−1. Mean percent effects on Fm′ are expressed as: (ΦEFm′/ΦAFm′ − 1) * 100. The effects on corresponding values of ΦPSII are also shown. MTleaf and MPPFD are leaf temperature and PPFD, respectively, during measurements. All values represent means ± SD for reported n-plants.
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