Biochemical models are used to predict and understand the response of photosynthesis to rising temperatures and CO2 partial pressures. These models require the temperature dependency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) kinetics and mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm). However, it is not known how the temperature response of Rubisco kinetics differs between species, and comprehensive in vivo Rubisco kinetics that include gm have only been determined in the warm-adapted Nicotiana tabacum. Here, we measured the temperature response of Rubisco kinetics and gm in N. tabacum and the cold-adapted Arabidopsis thaliana using gas exchange and 13CO2 isotopic discrimination on plants with genetically reduced levels of Rubisco. While the individual Rubisco kinetic parameters in N. tabacum and A. thaliana were similar across temperatures, they collectively resulted in significantly different modelled rates of photosynthesis. Additionally, gm increased with temperature in N. tabacum but not in A. thaliana. These findings highlight the importance of considering species-dependent differences in Rubisco kinetics and gm when modelling the temperature response of photosynthesis.