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Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 34 Issue 12

December 2011

Volume 34, Issue 12

Pages 2009–2224

  1. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Articles
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      Gene discovery in cereals through quantitative trait loci and expression analysis in water-use efficiency measured by carbon isotope discrimination (pages 2009–2023)

      JING CHEN, SCOTT X. CHANG and ANTHONY O. ANYIA

      Version of Record online: 15 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02397.x

      Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) is a simple and reliable measure of water-use efficiency (WUE) in cereals. Gene expression studies showed that greater WUE can be achieved by coordination between photosynthesis and transpiration, such as decreased stomatal conductance and improved CO2 assimilation. Association mapping and traditional bi-parental mapping have revealed that most QTL controlling Δ13C were small effects and co-located with QTL for yield components and heading date and/or plant height in cereals. However, routine cloning of genes underlying the QTL for WUE is still in its infant stage.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Articles
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      Responses of barley root and shoot proteomes to long-term nitrogen deficiency, short-term nitrogen starvation and ammonium (pages 2024–2037)

      ANDERS L. B. MØLLER, PAI PEDAS, BIRGIT ANDERSEN, BIRTE SVENSSON, JAN K. SCHJOERRING and CHRISTINE FINNIE

      Version of Record online: 15 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02396.x

      Improvement of nitrogen use efficiency of important cereal crops is a crucial challenge. In this study a proteomics approach enabled identification of over 80 proteins in barley roots and shoots that respond to N supply. Distinct but overlapping responses to long term N deficiency, short-term N starvation and ammonium were observed, which differed in roots and shoots.

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      Enhanced zinc uptake by rice through phytosiderophore secretion: a modelling study (pages 2038–2046)

      MARIYA PTASHNYK, TIINA ROOSE, DAVEY L. JONES and GUY J. D. KIRK

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02401.x

      This follows up an earlier paper (Arnold et al., 2010, PCE 33, 370–381) giving evidence for phytosiderophores (PS) involvement in Zn uptake by rice, using isotope discrimination. While the role of PS in Fe uptake by grasses is well established, their involvement in Zn uptake is debated. In this paper, a complete mathematical model of PS-mediated Zn uptake is developed, allowing for root growth, inter-root interaction, diurnal variation in PS secretion, decomposition of the PS in the soil, and the transport and interaction of the PS and Zn in the soil. It shows that (a) measured PS secretion rates are sufficient to explain measured Zn uptake rates and differences between rice genotypes; (b) there is an important interaction with rooting density; but (c) diurnally varying PS secretion has little effect on uptake.

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      Changes in leaf optical properties associated with light-dependent chloroplast movements (pages 2047–2059)

      PHILLIP A. DAVIS, STEVEN CAYLOR, CRAIG W. WHIPPO and ROGER P. HANGARTER

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02402.x

      We examined the influence of chloroplast position on the optical properties of leaves from 24 species. Following high-light treatment chloroplasts aligned along the sides of cells causing a decrease in leaf absorptance. Changes in leaf optical properties associated with chloroplast arrangement resulted from changes in the package effect but not the detour effect. Cell size was found to restrict the magnitude of the changes in leaf optical properties associated with chloroplast movements.

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      Dinitrogen-fixing Acacia species from phosphorus-impoverished soils resorb leaf phosphorus efficiently (pages 2060–2070)

      HONGHUA HE, TIM M. BLEBY, ERIK J. VENEKLAAS and HANS LAMBERS

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02403.x

      Nutrient resorption is vital for plant survival in nutrient-poor environments. Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption from senescing leaves were studied for four native Acacia species in the Great Sandy Desert, north-western Australia. All plants were more efficient at P resorption than at N resorption. Nutrient cycling through litterfall results in soil nutrient patchiness and forms ‘islands of fertility’ under the canopies of the shrubs.

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      Physiological characterization of cadmium-exposed Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (pages 2071–2082)

      ANJA BRÄUTIGAM, DIRK SCHAUMLÖFFEL, HUGUES PREUD'HOMME, IRIS THONDORF and DIRK WESENBERG

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02404.x

      Chlamydomonas reinhardtii consecutively synthesized canonic and Cys-phytochelatins in presence of an ecologically relevant cadmium concentration of 70 µM. Also the cadmium induced increase of phytochelatin synthase (PCS) transcription rate demonstrates the high impact of PCs in mediating cadmium detoxification. Furthermore, a homology model of C. reinhardtii phytochelatin synthase was constructed to prove if CysPCs can serve as competetive inhibitors of PCS.

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      Leaf gas films of Spartina anglica enhance rhizome and root oxygen during tidal submergence (pages 2083–2092)

      ANDERS WINKEL, TIMOTHY DAVID COLMER and OLE PEDERSEN

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02405.x

      Terrestrial wetland plants often become submerged during floods or tidal events. Some wetland plants retain a gas film on super-hydrophobic leaf surfaces when under water. Using in situ O2 microelectrodes, this study demonstrates the beneficial effects of leaf gas films for underwater photosynthesis and internal aeration of cordgrass (Spartina anglica) during tidal inundation.

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      Potassium channel-oxidative phosphorylation relationship in durum wheat mitochondria from control and hyperosmotic-stressed seedlings (pages 2093–2108)

      DANIELA TRONO, MARIO SOCCIO, MAURA N. LAUS and DONATO PASTORE

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02407.x

      The manuscript deals with the effect of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (PmitoKATP) activity on the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in durum wheat. The PmitoKATP may collapse membrane potential (ΔY) in such a manner to dampen mitochondrial ROS production. So, the channel may act as a mitochondrial and cell defence mechanism under environmental/oxidative stress condition. Interestingly, ΔY collapse may occur without affecting mitochondrial ATP synthesis via OXPHOS in mitochondria from seedlings grown under both control and moderate hyperosmotic stress condition, while under severe hyperosmotic stress OXPHOS is impaired. Results suggest a major role of the channel at the early phase of the stress when it may control ROS generation without affecting ATP synthesis.

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      Down-regulation of SymRK correlates with a deficiency in vascular bundle development in Phaseolus vulgaris nodules (pages 2109–2121)

      ROSANA SÁNCHEZ-LÓPEZ, DAVID JÁUREGUI, NOREIDE NAVA, XÓCHITL ALVARADO-AFFANTRANGER, JESÚS MONTIEL, OLIVIA SANTANA, FEDERICO SANCHEZ and CARMEN QUINTO

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02408.x

      The functional relationship between the spatio-temporal distribution of the signal transducer SymRK receptor and the development of P. vulgaris nodules has been addressed. PvSymRK immunolocalizes to root and nodule vascular system. Besides an impairment in nodulation and a deficiency in both IT/symbiosome formation, down-regulation of PvSymRK correlates with severe alterations in the development of nodule vasculature.

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      Novel temporal, fine-scale and growth variation phenotypes in roots of adult-stage maize (Zea mays L.) in response to low nitrogen stress (pages 2122–2137)

      AMELIE C. M. GAUDIN, SARAH A. MCCLYMONT, BRIDGET M. HOLMES, ERIC LYONS and MANISH N. RAIZADA

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02409.x

      The fine-scale effects of low nitrogen stress on adult-stage maize roots has not been fully characterized. Aeroponics, a system where roots grow in the air misted with a nutrient solution, was used for this analysis. The results show that low nitrogen impacts the adult maize root system at all scales of development including crown roots, first and second order lateral roots and root hairs, identifying novel traits for genetic dissection.

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      A de novo synthesis citrate transporter, Vigna umbellata multidrug and toxic compound extrusion, implicates in Al-activated citrate efflux in rice bean (Vigna umbellata) root apex (pages 2138–2148)

      XIAO YING YANG, JIAN LI YANG, YUAN ZHOU, MIGUEL A. PIÑEROS, LEON V. KOCHIAN, GUI XIN LI and SHAO JIAN ZHENG

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02410.x

      Al-activated organic acid anion efflux from roots is an important Al resistance mechanism in plants. We isolated VuMATE, a gene encoding a de novo citrate transporter from rice bean. It is completely induced by Al and only expressed in the root apex, which are the specific characteristics different from other MATE genes related to Al-induced citrate secretion.

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      Three-dimensional xylem networks and phyllode properties of co-occurring Acacia (pages 2149–2158)

      GERALD F. M. PAGE, JIE LIU and PAULINE F. GRIERSON

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02411.x

      Our study is one of the first to quantitatively analyse 3D connectivity of xylem networks using X-ray microtomography. Our study investigates how branch xylem architecture may relate to intra-specific variation in leaf level properties of Acacia aneura and Acacia ayersiana, two widespread Australian semi-arid species. We have demonstrated that 3D xylem connectivity is conserved among closely related Acacia that differ in minimum branch water potential and have a variable phyllode size. Our branch water potential measurements are among the most negative measured in angiosperms, and our results demonstrate the importance of leaf anatomy in the drought tolerance of woody species.

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      JA-Ile signalling in Solanum nigrum is not required for defence responses in nature (pages 2159–2171)

      ARJEN VANDOORN, GUSTAVO BONAVENTURE, ILANA ROGACHEV, ASAPH AHARONI and IAN T. BALDWIN

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02412.x

      We assessed the role of jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) in the non-model Solanum nigrum. Using transgenic plants silenced for genes in JA production (SnLOX3), conjugation of JA to JA-Ile (SnJAR4) and JA perception (SnCOI1), we show that JA-Ile signaling is not responsible for defense against Noctuidea herbivores in a natural environment. Transcriptional profiling shows that only a few genes are regulated by SnJAR4, in contrast to large-scale gene regulation by SnLOX3 and SnCOI1. However, an analysis of the metabolome over time following simulated herbivory, shows that a substantial number of ions are regulated by JA-Ile. Taken together, these results show that in contrast to other plant species, JA-Ile does not play a central role in activating S. nigrum's defenses, indicating that the fine-tuning of the JA-Ile-elicited herbivore response is a plant-specific process.

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      Active ROP2 GTPase inhibits ABA- and CO2-induced stomatal closure (pages 2172–2182)

      JAE-UNG HWANG, BYEONG WOOK JEON, DAEWOONG HONG and YOUNGSOOK LEE

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02413.x

      In this study, we show evidence that ROP2 plays a negative regulatory role during the stomatal closure in response to multiple closing stimuli and inactivation of ROP2 is necessary for the efficient stomatal closure. Together with our previous report of the negative regulation of light-induced stomatal opening by ROP2 (Jeon et al., 2008, Plant Cell), these findings suggest ROP2 as an important signaling molecule in stomatal responses to various signals.

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      Using a biochemical C4 photosynthesis model and combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements to estimate bundle-sheath conductance of maize leaves differing in age and nitrogen content (pages 2183–2199)

      XINYOU YIN, ZHOUPING SUN, PAUL C. STRUIK, PETER E. L. VAN DER PUTTEN, WIM VAN IEPEREN and JEREMY HARBINSON

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02414.x

      Bundle-sheath conductance (gbs) or resistance (rbs) affects the efficiency of the CO2-concentrating mechanism in C4 photosynthesis. Whether and how this parameter varies with leaf age and nitrogen status is virtually unknown. We addressed this question, using a C4-photosynthesis model and combined measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence on leaves of three different ages of maize plants grown under contrasting nitrogen levels. The estimated gbs values were affected more by leaf nitrogen than by leaf age, and rbs decreased monotonically with increasing leaf nitrogen content.

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      Whole organ, venation and epidermal cell morphological variations are correlated in the leaves of Arabidopsis mutants (pages 2200–2211)

      JOSÉ MANUEL PÉREZ-PÉREZ, SILVIA RUBIO-DÍAZ, STIJN DHONDT, DIANA HERNÁNDEZ-ROMERO, JOAQUÍN SÁNCHEZ-SORIANO, GERRIT T. S. BEEMSTER, MARÍA ROSA PONCE and JOSÉ LUIS MICOL

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02415.x

      A morphometric analysis of more than one hundred Arabidopsis leaf mutants suggests the nonessential contribution of the inner tissue layers to leaf morphogenesis and supports the idea that the epidermis drives leaf growth. Also, we provide the scientific community with some cellular descriptors that will allow the reinterpretation of already published leaf mutant phenotypes.

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      Overexpression of constitutively active Arabidopsis RabG3b promotes xylem development in transgenic poplars (pages 2212–2224)

      SOON IL KWON, HONG JOO CHO, JAE-SOON LEE, HYUNJUNG JIN, SOO-JEONG SHIN, MI KWON, EUN WOON NOH and OHKMAE K. PARK

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02416.x

      An Arabidopsis small GTPase, RabG3b, was previously characterized as a component of autophagy and as a positive regulator for xylem development in Arabidopsis. In this work, we assessed whether RabG3b modulates xylem-associated traits in poplar in a similar way as in Arabidopsis. We generated transgenic poplars overexpressing a constitutively active form of RabG3b and performed a range of morphological, histochemical, and molecular analyses to examine xylogenesis. Our results suggest that Arabidopsis RabG3b functions to regulate xylem growth through the activation of autophagy during wood formation in Populus, as does the same in Arabidopsis.

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