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Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 34 Issue 8

August 2011

Volume 34, Issue 8

Pages 1223–1413

  1. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Stagnant deoxygenated growth enhances root suberization and lignifications, but differentially affects water and NaCl permeabilities in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots (pages 1223–1240)

      KOSALA RANATHUNGE, JINXING LIN, ERNST STEUDLE and LUKAS SCHREIBER

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02318.x

      Combining histochemistry, biochemistry and transport physiology, this study assessed for the first time whether or not the induction of a barrier to ROL due to early deposition of apoplastic barriers influences water and solute permeabilities of rice roots grown in an oxygen-deprived medium. Growth in stagnant medium markedly reduced the root growth rate relative to aerated conditions and accelerated suberization and lignification of roots. However, enhanced suberization and lignification in stagnant roots failed to reduce hydraulic conductivity (Lpr) below those of aerated roots, but markedly decreased the NaCl permeability (Psr) compared to the aerated roots. Thus, rice roots can reduce radial oxygen loss without affecting radial water uptake at the same time, which represents an efficient optimization of rice root function in stagnant solution.

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      Measurement of carbon flux through the MEP pathway for isoprenoid synthesis by 31P-NMR spectroscopy after specific inhibition of 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate reductase. Effect of light and temperature (pages 1241–1247)

      GAËLLE MONGÉLARD, MYRIAM SEEMANN, ANNE-MARIE BOISSON, MICHEL ROHMER, RICHARD BLIGNY and CORINNE RIVASSEAU

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02322.x

      The methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) and the mevalonate pathways are the unique synthesis routes for the precursors of all isoprenoids. A simple method to measure the carbon flux through the MEP pathway is proposed by combining cadmium use as a specific and total short-term inhibitor of the sixth enzyme of the pathway (2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate (MEcDP) reductase (GcpE)) and the measurement of a phosphorylated intermediate of the pathway (MEcDP) using 31P-NMR spectroscopy, the dedicated technique to determine this compound. This method was applied to different plants including isoprene emitting and non-emitting species. The metabolic flux through the MEP pathway increases strongly with light and temperature. The relationship between the MEP pathway flux and the downstream production of isoprenoids is discussed.

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      Stochastic dynamics of actin filaments in guard cells regulating chloroplast localization during stomatal movement (pages 1248–1257)

      XIU-LING WANG, XIN-QI GAO and XUE-CHEN WANG

      Version of Record online: 21 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02325.x

      The dynamics of actin filaments and chloroplast localization were investigated in guard cells of transgenic tobacco expressing GFP-mouse talin. Actin filaments around chloroplasts showed sliding, bundling and branching, and severing and end-joining dynamics in moving guard cells. The stochastic dynamics of actin filaments in guard cells play their roles in the regulation of chloroplast localization during stomatal movement.

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      Do pH changes in the leaf apoplast contribute to rapid inhibition of leaf elongation rate by water stress? Comparison of stress responses induced by polyethylene glycol and down-regulation of root hydraulic conductivity (pages 1258–1266)

      CHRISTINA EHLERT, CLAUDE PLASSARD, SARAH JANE COOKSON, FRANÇOIS TARDIEU and THIERRY SIMONNEAU

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02326.x

      We have evaluated the respective influences of apoplastic pH and cell turgor on short-term responses of maize leaf growth to water availability and hydraulic conductivity. Changes in cell turgor accounted for most but not all leaf growth reductions. Apoplastic pH probably contributed to growth reduction in response to a change in plant water status, but not in response to a change in hydraulic conductivity linked to anoxia and acid load.

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      Systemic root signalling in a belowground, volatile-mediated tritrophic interaction (pages 1267–1275)

      IVAN HILTPOLD, MATTHIAS ERB, CHRISTELLE A. M. ROBERT and TED C. J. TURLINGS

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02327.x

      The economic impact of belowground herbivores can be tremendous and is receiving increased attention, but little is known about belowground plant defense responses and how these affect belowground trophic webs. The current study demonstrates for the first time that herbivory on maize roots induces the systemic production of (E)-β-caryophyllene, an attractant for entomopahtogenic nematodes, which can kill root-feeding insects within days. The study contributes to a better understanding of belowground interactions and introduces novel methodology to study such interactions in soil ecosystems.

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      Genetic determinism of anatomical and hydraulic traits within an apple progeny (pages 1276–1290)

      PIERRE-ÉRIC LAURI, OLIVIER GORZA, HERVÉ COCHARD, SÉBASTIEN MARTINEZ, JEAN-MARC CELTON, VÉRONIQUE RIPETTI, MARC LARTAUD, XAVIER BRY, CATHERINE TROTTIER and EVELYNE COSTES

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02328.x

      Xylem water transport is usually investigated through the two complementary viewpoints of efficiency and safety. However there is a lack of study on the phenotypic variability of these traits on perennials at the intra-species level and on its genetic determinism. The apple was chosen as an example of perennial plant of high economic importance cultivated in contrasted environmental conditions all over the world. First, we showed that within a progeny there was no trade-off between efficiency and safety variables. Indeed, some genotypes were able to combine both high efficiency and high safety. Second, the QTL analysis revealed that efficiency and safety variables were distributed on different linkage groups, and that QTLs for efficiency traits colocalized with other QTLs already identified for traits related to tree growth and fruit production.

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      ZmMKK4, a novel group C mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase in maize (Zea mays), confers salt and cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis (pages 1291–1303)

      XIANGPEI KONG, JIAOWEN PAN, MAOYING ZHANG, XIN XING, YAN ZHOU, YANG LIU, DAPENG LI and DEQUAN LI

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02329.x

      We isolated a novel group C MAPKK gene, ZmMKK4, from Zea mays, which was regulated by cold, high salt and exogenous H2O2, ABA. Many previous reports on group C MAPKK genes mainly focus on plant immunity and developmental signaling. However, in the present study, over-expression of ZmMKK4 in Arabidopsis conferred tolerance to cold and salt stresses by increased germination rate, lateral root numbers, plant survival rate, chlorophyll, proline and soluble sugar contents, and antioxidant enzyme (POD, CAT) activities compared with control plants. The studies broaden the function of group C MAPKK in plants.

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      Auxin modulates the enhanced development of root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. under elevated CO2 (pages 1304–1317)

      YAOFANG NIU, CHONGWEI JIN, GULEI JIN, QINGYAN ZHOU, XIANYONG LIN, CAIXIAN TANG and YONGSONG ZHANG

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02330.x

      This study demonstrated a profound effect of elevated CO2 on development of root hairs in Arabidopsis through well-characterized auxin signalling pathways. It opens up the opportunity of understanding on how the cellular networks of positional signals initiate the cell-specific expression of a number of transcription factors conferring the tolerance to environment stresses in Arabidopsis. The changes in root morphology provide the plant an efficient strategy to alleviate the limitation of nutrients under elevated CO2, an important part of climate change. The results have an important implication as to how the positive effects of elevated CO2 can be maximized through plant adaptive strategies to improve nutrient acquisition.

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      Influence of evaporative demand on aquaporin expression and root hydraulics of hybrid poplar (pages 1318–1331)

      ADRIANA M. ALMEIDA-RODRIGUEZ, UWE G. HACKE and JOAN LAUR

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02331.x

      We measured aquaporin expression and root hydraulic conductance of hybrid poplar plants subjected to different levels of light. Shade-grown saplings experiencing a sudden increase in light exhibited a three-fold higher root hydraulic conductance than plants remaining in shade. This dynamic increase corresponded with increased transcript abundance of 15 aquaporin genes out of a total of 33 genes simultaneously assessed by quantitative RT-PCR.

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      Leaf functional response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last century in two northern Amazonian tree species: a historical δ13C and δ18O approach using herbarium samples (pages 1332–1344)

      DAMIEN BONAL, STÉPHANE PONTON, DIDIER LE THIEC, BÉATRICE RICHARD, NATHALIE NINGRE, BRUNO HÉRAULT, JÉRÔME OGÉE, SOPHIE GONZALEZ, MARC PIGNAL, DANIEL SABATIER and JEAN-MARC GUEHL

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02333.x

      We assessed the extent of recent environmental changes on leaf morphological and physiological traits of two tropical rainforest species in Northern Amazonia using herbarium samples and a simulation approach with models describing carbon and oxygen isotope fractionations during photosynthesis. We confirmed that both species displayed physiological response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last 50 years. An increase in photosynthesis, rather than a decrease in stomatal conductance, allowed them to maintain a constant ratio of intercellular CO2 concentrations inside the leaf to atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

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      Vitis CBF1 and Vitis CBF4 differ in their effect on Arabidopsis abiotic stress tolerance, development and gene expression (pages 1345–1359)

      MAHBUBA SIDDIQUA and ANNETTE NASSUTH

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02334.x

      Arabidopsis plants overexpressing two different grape CBF genes were analyzed to determine whether different CBFs could have different functions. It was determined that abiotic stress tolerance and plant development was affected, and the expression of several genes related to these changes was increased. Among these genes was the known inducer of AtCBF3 expression, AtICE1/SCREAM, suggesting for the first time that there is a feedback loop from CBF expression. Taken together the results show that the CBF transcription factors have overlapping regulons leading to unique functions such as the higher drought tolerance induced by grape CBF1.

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      Rice OsNAR2.1 interacts with OsNRT2.1, OsNRT2.2 and OsNRT2.3a nitrate transporters to provide uptake over high and low concentration ranges (pages 1360–1372)

      MING YAN, XIAORONG FAN, HUIMING FENG, ANTHONY J. MILLER, QIRONG SHEN and GUOHUA XU

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02335.x

      The main form of nitrogen (N) available for the plants is nitrate in aerobic temperate soils, and ammonium in anaerobic flooded soil. It has been proposed that rice and other wetland plants may take up significant amounts of nitrate formed by nitrification of ammonium in their flooded rhizosphere. This paper provides the direct molecular evidence for nitrate uptake in rice showing the physiological function of OsNAR2.1, a partner protein of NAR2/NRT2 two component nitrate transport system in rice. We identified that OsNAR2.1 interacts with three NRT2 transporters (NRT2.1, NRT2.2, NRT2.3a) both at the mRNA and protein levels and plays an important role in nitrate uptake over both high and low concentration ranges.

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      In vivo cytochrome and alternative pathway respiration in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with altered alternative oxidase under different light conditions (pages 1373–1383)

      IGOR FLOREZ-SARASA, JAUME FLEXAS, ALLAN G. RASMUSSON, ANN L. UMBACH, JAMES N. SIEDOW and MIQUEL RIBAS-CARBO

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02337.x

      Although the alternative oxidase has been related to the response to different environmental stresses, little information regarding to its activity under these circumstances is available. We have provided measurements of the activity of the two respiratory pathways under high light. Our results show that the in vivo activity of the alternative pathway is not related to the amount of AOX protein present but to the intensity of growth light. Moreover, the lack of increasing AOX activity due to capacity limitation induces increases in chronic photoinhibition under high light stress. Finally, our results show, for the first time, a saturation of the alternative pathway in AOX1a antisense with reduced capacity. Moreover, the cytochrome pathway is able to take electrons when increased respiration is required to respond to high light stress.

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      Water relations of coast redwood planted in the semi-arid climate of southern California (pages 1384–1400)

      ELIZAVETA LITVAK, HEATHER R. MCCARTHY and DIANE E. PATAKI

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02339.x

      The water relations of trees planted in southern California, where they are often exposed to an unusual combination of dry atmosphere and irrigated soil, are uncertain. We investigated the water relations of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) planted in the urbanized semi-arid Los Angeles Basin, where it often experiences leaf chlorosis and senescence. We conclude that water stress was not a direct factor in causing leaf chlorosis and senescence. Instead, the relatively strong stomatal control that is adaptive in the native habitat of coast redwood may lead to carbon limitation and other stresses in semi-arid, irrigated habitats.

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      Increased exposure to UV-B radiation during early development leads to enhanced photoprotection and improved long-term performance in Lactuca sativa (pages 1401–1413)

      JASON J. WARGENT, ESLAM M. ELFADLY, JASON P. MOORE and NIGEL D. PAUL

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02342.x

      Plant responses to UV radiation are numerous and often viewed as a negative influence on plant growth. Here we demonstrate that early exposure to UV leads to increased photosynthetic productivity and increased final yield in a field-grown lettuce crop, and that additionally, exposure to UV also confers photoprotective benefits to plants grown under controlled conditions. Such outcomes represent possible exploitable benefits of managed UV radiation exposure in modern crop production.

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