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Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 35 Issue 1

Yearly Review of Environmental Plant Physiology

January 2012

Volume 35, Issue 1

Pages 1–198

  1. Invited Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Opinion
    4. Original Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Metabolic control and regulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in photosynthetic and heterotrophic plant tissues (pages 1–21)

      WAGNER L. ARAÚJO, ADRIANO NUNES-NESI, ZORAN NIKOLOSKI, LEE J. SWEETLOVE and ALISDAIR R. FERNIE

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02332.x

      Here we assess the metabolic control resident in the tricarboxylic acid cycle as determined from respiration measurement following antisense or pharmacological inhibition of each of the eight enzymes constituting the cycle. Findings are discussed in terms of our knowledge of the function and operation of the individual enzymes and their kinetic properties as well as with respect to the operation and regulation of flux through the cycle in response to cellular circumstance.

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      Carbonic anhydrase and the molecular evolution of C4 photosynthesis (pages 22–37)

      MARTHA LUDWIG

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02364.x

      The current knowledge of carbonic anhydrase multigene families in plants using C4 photosynthesis is reviewed, and the novel insights this enzyme has given into the molecular evolution of this photosynthetic pathway are highlighted. Work with members of the genus Flaveria is described as a case study, and consideration is also given to carbonic anhydrases from C4 plants for which there is whole genome sequence information. With the current interest in C4 plants as sustainable sources of fuel, the transfer of the C4 pathway into C3 crops, and the evolution of angiosperms, the information presented is of interest to plant physiologists and molecular and evolutionary biologists.

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      Accelerating yield potential in soybean: potential targets for biotechnological improvement (pages 38–52)

      ELIZABETH A. AINSWORTH, CRAIG R. YENDREK, JEFFREY A. SKONECZKA and STEPHEN P. LONG

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02378.x

      Soybean is a key component of global food security, providing high-protein animal feed and over half of the world's oilseed production. In this paper, the historical basis for the yield gains realized over the past century and potential metabolic targets for achieving further improvements in yield potential are discussed. These targets include improving photosynthetic efficiency, optimizing delivery and utilization of carbon, more efficient nitrogen fixation and altering flower initiation and abortion. Rapid improvement towards boosting soybean yield potential will require biotechnological advances that enable improvement of multiple traits.

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      ABA signal transduction at the crossroad of biotic and abiotic stress responses (pages 53–60)

      SUNG CHUL LEE and SHENG LUAN

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02426.x

      Plants are constantly bombarded by environmental signals including both biotic and abiotic stress condtions. Among the complex molecular mechanisms for responding to these signals, plant hormone ABA plays a key role in the crosstalk of signaling pathways that couple biotic and abiotic signals to cellular responses. Centrally located in the many signaling processes, ABA-induced stomatal closure controls both pathogen entry and water loss during drought stress. This review highlights recent breakthroughs that demonstrate the molecular events underlying ABA action in stomatal guard cells.

  2. Opinion

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Opinion
    4. Original Articles
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      Strategies of a Bornean tropical rainforest water use as a function of rainfall regime: isohydric or anisohydric? (pages 61–71)

      TOMO'OMI KUMAGAI and AMILCARE PORPORATO

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02428.x

      The observations indicate that a Bornean tropical rainforest ecosystem tends to have little regulation of water use referred to as anisohydric behavior, as opposed to isohydric plants that have a wide range of stomatal regulation to prevent hydraulic failure. Although it is generally thought that such an anisohydric behavior is an adaptation to more drought-prone habitats, we show that anisohydric plants may also be more favored than isohydric plants under very moist environments, e.g., a tropical rainforest. In this study, we examined the advantages of isohydric and anisohydric species as a function of the hydroclimatic environment using stochastic model of soil moisture and carbon assimilation dynamics parameterized by field observations.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Opinion
    4. Original Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Silencing of G proteins uncovers diversified plant responses when challenged by three elicitors in Nicotiana benthamiana (pages 72–85)

      HUAJIAN ZHANG, MEIFANG WANG, WEI WANG, DEQING LI, QIAN HUANG, YUANCHAO WANG, XIAOBO ZHENG and ZHENGGUANG ZHANG

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02417.x

      In comparison to the activation of gene-for-gene-mediated plant cultivar-specific resistance, relatively little is known about the signaling pathways mediating non-cultivar-specific plant resistance. Our isolation of different pathogens-derived elicitors (bacterial harpin, fungal Nep1, and oomycete boehmerin) and characterization of its defense-inducing potential in N. benthamiana now provide suitable tools for such an approach. In our work, we determine the roles of N. benthamiana Gα and Gβ subunits (Gβ1 and Gβ2) in the elicitor signaling and to determine whether there was evidence that the heterotrimeric state of N. benthamiana G protein complex could play a regulatory role. Therefore, our work contributes to our understanding of the elicitor downstream signaling pathway in plant immunity, which may help determine similarities and differences in the molecular basis of distinct plant–microbe interactions.

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      Genome-wide identification of Medicago truncatula microRNAs and their targets reveals their differential regulation by heavy metal (pages 86–99)

      ZHAO SHENG ZHOU, HOU QING ZENG, ZHAO PU LIU and ZHI MIN YANG

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02418.x

      We adopted a deep sequencing approach to investigate global expression and complexity of microRNAs and their targets from Hg-treated and Hg-free M. truncatula seedlings. At least 54 new (52 families) miRNA candidates with ∼21 nucleotides are perfectly matched to the M. truncatula genome. Statistical analysis on transcript abundance of these new miRNAs revealed that most of miRNAs were differentially regulated by Hg. Finally, 130 targets for 58 known (37 conserved and 21 non-conserved) miRNA families and 37 targets for 18 new M. truncatula-specific candidate miRNA families were identified by high-throughput degradome sequencing approach.

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      Sulfite oxidase controls sulfur metabolism under SO2 exposure in Arabidopsis thaliana (pages 100–115)

      DÖRTE RANDEWIG, DOMENICA HAMISCH, CORNELIA HERSCHBACH, MONIKA EIBLMEIER, CHRISTIAN GEHL, JENS JURGELEIT, JESSICA SKERRA, RALF R. MENDEL, HEINZ RENNENBERG and ROBERT HÄNSCH

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02420.x

      The significance of the enzyme sulfite oxidase (SO) for sulfite detoxification and sulfur assimilation was investigated. The aim of the presented work was an in depth-analysis of the consequence of a non-toxic dosage of SO2 gas for A. thaliana wildtype, and we compared the effect with SO-knock out and SO-overexpressing plants, respectively. The main focus of our work was to decipher metabolic co-regulation of enzymes involved in the sulfur assimilation pathway which was never before shown in this way and in this detail. Based on our results it is suggested that co-regulation of SO and APR controls the sulfate assimilation pathway and stabilizes sulfite distribution into organic sulfur compounds. In the final conclusion, a sulfate-sulfite-cycle driven by APR and SO can be postulated for fine-tuning of sulfur distribution which could be additionally used for sulfite detoxification when plants are exposed to atmospheric SO2.

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      Hydraulic architecture of two species differing in wood density: opposing strategies in co-occurring tropical pioneer trees (pages 116–125)

      KATHERINE A. MCCULLOH, DANIEL M. JOHNSON, FREDERICK C. MEINZER, STEVEN L. VOELKER, BARBARA LACHENBRUCH and JEAN-CHRISTOPHE DOMEC

      Version of Record online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02421.x

      In this work we measured a variety of parameters linked to the tolerance of daily and seasonal water stress in two pioneer species in the Republic of Panamá. Although these species are co-occurring and we found that they had similar hydraulic efficiency, they differed in how they withstood water stress. One species, Miconia argentea, had relatively high wood density and tolerated more hydraulic stress than the lower wood density species, Anacardium excelsum, which relied more on its capacitance to buffer daily declines in water potential. This work highlights the need to measure a suite of traits to more fully understand the different strategies co-occurring plants employ to manage water stress.

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      The spatial distribution of acid phosphatase activity in ectomycorrhizal tissues depends on soil fertility and morphotype, and relates to host plant phosphorus uptake (pages 126–135)

      MARICEL ALVAREZ, DRIES HUYGENS, LEILA MILENA DÍAZ, CLAUDIA AÑAZCO VILLANUEVA, WOLFGANG HEYSER and PASCAL BOECKX

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02422.x

      Acid phosphatase (ACP) has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of P efflux at the fungus:root interface. We quantified in vivo ACP activity in specific ectomycorrhizal sections, and observed that the spatial distribution of ACP in ectomycorrhizas varies as a function of soil fertility and colonizing fungus. Moreover, a positive correlation between ACP activity in the Hartig net region and the shoot P concentration was found. Our findings increase the understanding in the mechanisms behind ectomycorrhizal plant P nutrition and their responses to external drivers.

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      Comparative metabolomics of drought acclimation in model and forage legumes (pages 136–149)

      DIEGO H. SANCHEZ, FRANZISKA SCHWABE, ALEXANDER ERBAN, MICHAEL K. UDVARDI and JOACHIM KOPKA

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02423.x

      The study ‘Comparative metabolomics of drought acclimation in model and forage legumes’ aims for an enhanced understanding of legume drought acclimation mechanisms, specifically the potential function of complex metabolic acclimation patterns in the Lotus genus. Using non-targeted GC-MS based metabolite profiling technologies we compared the plastic systems responses to non-lethal water limitation in model and forage legume species. As was observed for other stress cues, increased water stress caused gradual metabolic changes which reflected a global and progressive reprogramming of metabolic pathways. The metabolomic analysis includes a comparison of the drought responses to previously reported salt stress responses of the same Lotus species. Our study revealed conserved and unique metabolic responses to drought stress. Importantly, only few drought responsive metabolites were conserved among all species. Thus we highlight a potential impediment to translational approaches that aim to engineer traits linked to the accumulation of compatible solutes. The implications of these results are discussed with regard to the current insights into legume water stress physiology.

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      Could rapid diameter changes be facilitated by a variable hydraulic conductance? (pages 150–157)

      KATHY STEPPE, HERVÉ COCHARD, ANDRÉ LACOINTE and THIERRY AMÉGLIO

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02424.x

      This study shows that the radial hydraulic conductance between the xylem and the bark in tree branches and trunks can change and be controlled by aquaporin abundance and/or activity. The contribution of the protein-mediated cell-to-cell pathway to the overall radial water transport could be greater than generally thought and appears to be activated by environmental stimuli that increase transpiration.

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      Hydraulic conductance of Acacia phyllodes (foliage) is driven by primary nerve (vein) conductance and density (pages 158–168)

      KATY E. SOMMERVILLE, LAWREN SACK and MARILYN C. BALL

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02425.x

      In this study, we found that transformation of tomato plants with the codA gene improved tolerance to Hydraulic conductance was studied in relation to venation traits in morphologically diverse phyllodes of 44 species of Acacia that had been grown in common gardens but varied in origins along a precipitation gradient in Australia. As in leaves, hydraulic conductance of phyllodes was correlated with primary nerve density. However, unlike leaves, hydraulic conductance of phyllodes was not correlated with minor nerve density, possibly because the conductive role of bundle sheath extensions superseded that of minor nerves. Phyllodes with higher hydraulic conductance had higher mass per area and were more common in species originating from drier areas.

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      Greater antioxidant and respiratory metabolism in field-grown soybean exposed to elevated O3 under both ambient and elevated CO2 (pages 169–184)

      KELLY M. GILLESPIE, FANGXIU XU, KATHERINE T. RICHTER, JUSTIN M. MCGRATH, R. J. CODY MARKELZ, DONALD R. ORT, ANDREW D. B. LEAKEY and ELIZABETH A. AINSWORTH

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02427.x

      This study investigated the molecular, biochemical and physiological changes in soybean exposed to elevated [O3] in a background of ambient [CO2] and elevated [CO2] in the field. Principle components analysis was used to separate variability in [O3] from variability in other environmental conditions (temperature, light and relative humidity). The key results show that energetically expensive increases in antioxidant metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis at elevated [O3] were supported by greater respiratory metabolism.

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      Short-term control of maize cell and root water permeability through plasma membrane aquaporin isoforms (pages 185–198)

      CHARLES HACHEZ, DMITRY VESELOV, QING YE, HAGEN REINHARDT, THORSTEN KNIPFER, WIELAND FRICKE and FRANÇOIS CHAUMONT

      Version of Record online: 23 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02429.x

      Regulation of water flow by specific aquaporins was studied in maize roots. The expression of plasma membrane aquaporins as a function of the diurnal cycle, the growth conditions and in response to short-term osmotic stress was determined. These data were correlated with aquaporin activity deduced by measuring the cell and root hydraulic permeability. A role of specific PIP isoforms in regulating root water uptake and cortex cell hydraulic conductivity in was shown.

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