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Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 35 Issue 12

December 2012

Volume 35, Issue 12

Pages 2061–2220

  1. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Photosynthetic limitations and volatile and non-volatile isoprenoids in the poikilochlorophyllous resurrection plant Xerophyta humilis during dehydration and rehydration (pages 2061–2074)

      MEGAN BECKETT, FRANCESCO LORETO, VIOLETA VELIKOVA, CECILIA BRUNETTI, MARTINA DI FERDINANDO, MASSIMILIANO TATTINI, CARLO CALFAPIETRA and JILL M. FARRANT

      Version of Record online: 5 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02536.x

      Understanding how plants can adapt to and cope with extreme environments may lead to major scientific discoveries. Xerophyta humilis is a resurrection plant with the amazing capacity to fully dry leaves during extreme drought while restoring photosynthesis from the same leaves once rehydrated. Here it is shown that photosynthesis of Xerophyta is mainly photochemically limited during dehydration. This is also the first report that a resurrection plant emits isoprene, a volatile molecule acting as a membrane strengthener and an antioxidant in several mesophytes. It is postulated that, in Xerophyta, isoprene plays a role during early stages of dehydration, whereas non-volatile isoprenoids become more effective once the stress is severe.

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      Cadmium exerts its toxic effects on photosynthesis via a cascade mechanism in the cyanobacterium, Synechocystis PCC 6803 (pages 2075–2086)

      TÜNDE TÓTH, OTTÓ ZSIROS, MIHÁLY KIS, GYŐZŐ GARAB and LÁSZLÓ KOVÁCS

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02537.x

      We investigated the short- and long-term effects of cadmium on the photosynthesis of Synechocystis PCC 6803. The quick Cd2+ uptake in these cells permits the direct interaction of cadmium with the photosynthetic machinery and allows the distinction between primary and secondary effects. We have determined the sequence of events triggered by Cd2+ and characterised them by their light and Cd2+ concentration dependences. Based on our observation we have been able to correlate diverse effects observed on different timescales and suggest a cascade mechanism of the toxicity.

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      Variable mesophyll conductance revisited: theoretical background and experimental implications (pages 2087–2103)

      DANNY THOLEN, GILBERT ETHIER, BERNARD GENTY, STEEVE PEPIN and XIN-GUANG ZHU

      Version of Record online: 12 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02538.x

      The variability of mesophyll conductance (gm) has been a controversial topic during the last few years. In this work we re-evaluate the definition of gm and place mitochondrial CO2 release into the mathematical framework for calculating gm. This allows us to explain the observed decrease in gm with increasing oxygen levels. We further discuss the implications of a significant chloroplast membrane and/or stroma resistance for the CO2 photocompensation point, estimates of Rubisco kinetic constants, the relation between stomatal and mesophyll conductance, and the recycling of (photo) respiratory CO2.

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      Hrip1, a novel protein elicitor from necrotrophic fungus, Alternaria tenuissima, elicits cell death, expression of defence-related genes and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco (pages 2104–2120)

      MAHESH KULYE, HUA LIU, YULIANG ZHANG, HONGMEI ZENG, XIUFEN YANG and DEWEN QIU

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02539.x

      Recognition plays a central role in interactions between plants and their pathogens. Currently, most experimental data available on the plant-pathogen interactions are from studies of infections by potential biotrophic pathogens, including bacteria and viruses. However, there are several arguments about the mechanism of disease resistance during plants and necrotrophic pathogens interaction. We have reported the identification, purification, characterization, and gene cloning of a novel hypersensitive response inducing protein (Hrip1) secreted by necrotrophic fungus, Alternaria tenuissima, which induced calcium influx, medium alkalinization, activation of salicylic acid–induced protein kinase, several defense-related genes and systemic acquired resistance after infiltration in tobacco leaves. Hrip1 represents a powerful tool to investigate further the signals and their transduction pathways involved in induced disease resistance in necrotrophic fungi.

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      Leaf anatomical properties in relation to differences in mesophyll conductance to CO2 and photosynthesis in two related Mediterranean Abies species (pages 2121–2129)

      JOSÉ JAVIER PEGUERO-PINA, JAUME FLEXAS, JERONI GALMÉS, ÜLO NIINEMETS, DOMINGO SANCHO-KNAPIK, GONZALO BARREDO, DIDO VILLARROYA and EUSTAQUIO GIL-PELEGRÍN

      Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02540.x

      The manuscript entitled ‘Leaf anatomical properties in relation to differences in mesophyll conductance to CO2 and photosynthesis in two related Mediterranean Abies species’ by Peguero-Pina and coworkers shows how Abies pinsapo presents both higher photosynthesis and WUE than its relative A. alba. The difference in photosynthesis is entirely due to differences in mesophyll conductance to CO2, which matches a difference in hydraulic conductivity between the two species. This is the first report showing that gm is the main factor limiting photosynthesis in one species (A. alba) when compared with the values achieved by the other one (A. pinsapo). Moreover, leaf anatomical determinations highlight that cell wall and chloroplast thickness are the most limiting factor for mesophyll conductance, which gives support to recent papers published in PCE.

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      Cold stress selectively unsilences tandem repeats in heterochromatin associated with accumulation of H3K9ac (pages 2130–2142)

      YONG HU, LU ZHANG, SHIBIN HE, MIN HUANG, JUNJUN TAN, LIN ZHAO, SHIHAN YAN, HUI LI, KUN ZHOU, YANAN LIANG and LIJIA LI

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02541.x

      It is not clear whether any type of heterochromatic elements can be activated by environmental stress and little is known about global epigenetic modification trends of repetitive sequences in large-genome plants in response to environmental stress. In this study, we identified differential cold-induced H3K9ac enrichment at repetitive sequences in maize by using a chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) method and confirmed that cold stress unsilenced two knob-associated tandem repetitive sequences, 180-bp and TR-1, companied with elevated H3K9ac levels, decreased DNA methylation and H3K9me2 and nucleosome remodeling at the tandem repeat region. These results suggest that heterochromatic tandem repeated sequences may play an important role in the adaptation of plants to cold stimuli.

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      Tapping natural variation at functional level reveals allele specific molecular characteristics of potato invertase Pain-1 (pages 2143–2154)

      ASTRID M. DRAFFEHN, PAWEL DUREK, ADRIANO NUNES-NESI, BENJAMIN STICH, ALISDAIR R. FERNIE and CHRISTIANE GEBHARDT

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02544.x

      Natural variation at the Pain-1 invertase locus of potato is associated with the accumulation of reducing sugars in the tubers in response to cold temperature. To unravel the molecular characteristics underlying this association, we compared transcript levels, biochemical parameters Km and vmax and deduced protein models of associated and non-associated Pain-1 alleles. All three approaches revealed structural and functional differences between Pain-1 alleles without pinpointing to a mechanism that could explain the difference between associated and non-associated alleles. Our results highlight the need to consider genotype dependent diversity in studies of gene function, especially in polyploid, heterozygous species.

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      Seed Fatty Acid Reducer acts downstream of gibberellin signalling pathway to lower seed fatty acid storage in Arabidopsis (pages 2155–2169)

      MINGXUN CHEN, XUE DU, YANG ZHU, ZHONG WANG, SHUIJIAN HUA, ZHILAN LI, WANGLI GUO, GUOPING ZHANG, JINRONG PENG and LIXI JIANG

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02546.x

      We demonstrated that five GDSL-type esterases (we named them as SFAR, standing for Seed Fatty Acid Reducer) act downstream of GA signaling pathway to reduce seed fatty acid (FA) storage in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of SFAR reduced total seed FA contents and resulted in a particular pattern of seed FA composition, a ‘SFAR footprint’ that can also be found in the DELLA mutants as well as the WT plants treated with exogenous GA3. The GDSL-type esterases, which have little sequence homology to a classical lipase, is a family of proteins largely uncharacterized in Arabidopsis, and their biological function actually remains little understood. We show the first evidence that some GDSL proteins are involved in the degradation of FA in Arabidopsis seeds.

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      Carbon trading for phosphorus gain: the balance between rhizosphere carboxylates and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in plant phosphorus acquisition (pages 2170–2180)

      M. H. RYAN, M. TIBBETT, T. EDMONDS-TIBBETT, L. D. B. SURIYAGODA, H. LAMBERS, G. R. CAWTHRAY and J. PANG

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02547.x

      Carboxylate exudation into the rhizosphere aids plants to access strongly sorbed soil P, while arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses primarily aid plants to access labile inorganic P. As both involve a carbon cost to the plant, we examined whether inoculation of 10 species of low-P adapted Kennedia with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi would reduce rhizosphere carboxylates and thereby alter the soil P resources utilized by the plants. Overall, inoculation reduced rhizosphere carboxylates and increased plant P content, but plant P content was positively correlated with amount of rhizosphere citric acid for both inoculated and uninoculated plants. Hence, we propose that mycorrhizally-mediated resource partitioning occurred, as inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi presumably decreased the proportion of plant P acquired from strongly sorbed sources and increased the proportion of plant P acquired from labile inorganic P.

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      Natural variation in the temperature range permissive for vernalization in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana (pages 2181–2191)

      AMANDA C. WOLLENBERG and RICHARD M. AMASINO

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02548.x

      Vernalization is defined as cold-mediated acquisition of the competence to flower. However, the temperature range that permits vernalization in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has not been defined. In this work we describe this range for fifteen natural accessions and also characterize the extent to which an upstream mediator of vernalization, VIN3, is induced at various temperatures. Finally, we have uncovered a unique relationship between vernalization and photoperiod responses in a particular accession from Spain.

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      Function of defensive volatiles in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) is tricked by the moth Tortrix viridana (pages 2192–2207)

      ANDREA GHIRARDO, WERNER HELLER, MATTHIAS FLADUNG, JÖRG-PETER SCHNITZLER and HILKE SCHROEDER

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02545.x

      This work outlines the biochemical and ecological reasons that some pedunculate oaks (Quercus robur) can tolerate harmful outbreak episodes of the green oak leaf roller (Tortrix viridana), whereas others are heavily defoliated during forest infestations of this pest. Defoliation of oaks is globally a severe problem with multiple consequences for forest management and the cultivation of suitable oak varieties. We performed online analyses of VOCs with PTR-MS during herbivore feeding experiments and combined them with the results of behavioural experiments with larvae and adult moths. We found conspicuous differences in the VOCs of the two oak phenotypes explaining the preferences of the adult moth for the susceptible phenotype.

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      Short-term effects of CO2 and O2 on citrate metabolism in illuminated leaves (pages 2208–2220)

      GUILLAUME TCHERKEZ, ALINE MAHÉ, FLORENCE GUÉRARD, EDOUARD R. A. BOEX-FONTVIEILLE, ELISABETH GOUT, MARLÈNE LAMOTHE, MARGARET M. BARBOUR and RICHARD BLIGNY

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02550.x

      This paper explores the effect of gaseous conditions on the metabolism associated with leaf day respiration (non-photorespiratory CO2 evolution). It is shown that under high CO2, the metabolic flux through the tricarboxylic acid pathway is limited, with less neo-synthesized glutamate. Accordingly, day-evolved CO2 is naturally more 13C-depleted showing an increased respiratory fractionation against 13C. This is the first study to provide evidence for detrimental short-term effects of high CO2 on respiration and N assimilation. Commentary: Breaking the cycle: How light, CO2 and O2 affect plant respiration.

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